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Chemistry Topics - Form Four

 

TOPIC 1: Non Metals and Their Compound

  1. General Chemical Properties of Non Metals

    • Explain the oxidizing properties of non-metals

    • Describe the displacement of non-metals by another non-metal from a compound

  2. Chlorine

    • Describe the chemical properties of chlorine

    • Explain the uses of chlorine

  3. Hydrogen Chloride

    • Prepare a dry sample of hydrogen chloride gas

    • Explain the properties of hydrogen chloride gas

    • Explain the uses of hydrogen chloride

  4. Sulphur

    • Describe the extraction of sulphur from natural deposits

    • Explain the properties of sulphur

    • Explain the uses of sulphur

  5. Sulphur Dioxide

    • Describe the properties of sulphur dioxide

    • Explain the uses and hazards of sulphur dioxide

  6. Sulphuric Acid

    • Describe the contact process for the manufacture of sulphuric acid

    • Explain the properties of sulphuric acid

    • Explain the uses of sulphuric acid

  7. Nitrogen

    • Prepare a sample of nitrogen in the laboratory

    • Explain the uses of nitrogen

  8. Ammonia

    • Prepare a dry sample of ammonia gas in the laboratory

    • Describe the properties of ammonia

    • Explain the Uses of Ammonia

  9. Carbon

    • Name the forms in which carbon exists

    • Describe allotropic forms of carbon

  10. Carbon Dioxide

    • Prepare a dry sample of carbon dioxide gas in the laboratory

    • Analyse the properties of carbon dioxide

    • Explain the uses of carbon dioxide

 

TOPIC 2: Organic Chemistry

  1. Introduction to Organic Chemistry

    • Distinguish organic from inorganic chemistry

    • Explain the importance of organic chemistry in life

    • Explain the origin of organic compounds

    • Describe the fractional distillation of crude oil

  2. Hydrocarbons

    • Classify the three families of hydrocarbons

    • Write the homologous series of the three families of hydrocarbons

    • Explain the concept of isomerism

    • Write structural formulae of all isomers of hydrocarbons up to five carbon atoms

    • Name the isomers of hydrocarbons up to five carbon atoms

    • Apply a general formula to identify the families of hydrocarbons

  3. Properties of Hydrocarbons

    • Explain the physical properties of lower hydrocarbons; alkanes, alkenes and alkynes

    • Explain the concept of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons

    • Compare the chemical properties of alkanes, alkenes and alkynes

  4. Alcohols

    • Prepare ethanol in the laboratory

    • Write the homology of alcohols up to five carbon atoms

    • Write structure of all isomers of saturated alcohols up to five carbon atoms

    • Name all isomers of alcohols up to five carbon atoms

    • Describe the properties of alcohol

    • Explain the uses of alcohol

    • Explain the harmful effects of alcohols

  5. Carboxylic Acids

    • Identify natural sources of organic acids

    • Explain the oxidation of ethanol to ethanoic acid

    • Write the structures of the homologues of carboxylic acids up to five carbon atoms

    • Name the isomers of carboxylic acids up to five carbon atoms

    • Explain the properties of carboxylic acids

    • Prepare soap from animal fats or vegetable oil

TOPIC 3:  Soil Chemistry

  1. Soil Formation

    • Describe soil formation

    • Describe the factors influencing soil formation

  2. Soil Reaction

    • Explain the concept of soil reaction

    • Measure the pH of a given soil sample

    • Manage the soil pH by using different liming materials

  3. Plant Nutrients in The Soil

    • Categorize the essential plant nutrients

    • Explain the functions of each of the primary macronutrients in plant growth

    • Prepare plant nutrient cultures in the laboratory

    • Manage the loss of plant nutrients from the soil

  4. Manures and Fertilizers

    • Prepare heap and pit compost manure

    • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of natural manures

    • Mention types of synthetic fertilisers used in Tanzania

    • Explain the concept of fertiliser grades and analysis

    • Identify methods of fertilizer application

    • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of artificial fertilizers as compared to natural manures

  5. Soil Fertility and Productivity

    • Explain the concept of soil fertility and soil productivity

    • Differentiate soil fertility form soil productivity

    • Explain the factors which determine fertility and productivity of the soil

    • Explain the causes of loss in soil fertility

 

TOPIC 4: Pollution 

  1. Concept of Pollution

    • Explain the concept of pollution

  2. Terrestrial Pollution

    • Explain the concept of terrestrial pollution

    • Identify human activities which cause terrestrial pollution

    • Identify hazards caused by terrestrial pollution

    • Suggest different methods of preventing terrestrial pollution

  3. Aquatic Pollution

    • Explain the concept of aquatic pollution

    • Identify human activities which cause water pollution

    • Identify the hazards which are caused by water pollution

    • Suggest ways of preventing water pollution

  4. Aerial Pollution

    • Explain the concept of aerial pollution

    • Identify human activities which cause aerial pollution

    • Identify hazards caused by aerial pollution

    • Suggest different methods of preventing air pollution

    • Identify safety measures to protect industrial workers from gaseous pollution

  5. Environmental Conservation

    • Explain the meaning of environmental conservation

    • Demonstrate right attitudes, values,and behaviours towards environmental conservation

  6. Global Warming

    • Explain the global warming in terms of ‘green house’ effect

    • Describe how the major “greenhouse” gases are produced

    • Describe climatic conditions caused by global warming

    • Suggest ways of preventing global warming

  7. Ozone Layer Destruction

    • Explain the meaning of ozone layer and its importance of to life on earth

    • Identify chemical substances which destroy the ozone layer

    • Suggest methods of protecting the ozone layer

TOPIC 5: Qualitative Analysis

  1. The Concept of Qualitative Analysis

    • Explain the meaning of qualitative analysis

    • State the importance of qualitative analysis in real life

  2. Qualitative Analysis Procedures

    • Use special apparatus for qualitative analysis

    • Carry out preliminary test on an unknown sample

    • Prepare stock solutions from soluble and insoluble salts

    • Precipitate insoluble salts from their solutions

    • Confirm cations and anions identified

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