IMPERIALISM AND THE TERITORIAL DIVISION OF THE WORLD
According to the Vladimir I. Lenin, Imperialism is the highest stage of Capitalism whereby big nations had expanded their tentacles through an expansionist theory to other Nations in order to maximize profit.
Thomas Hobson defined Imperialism as the struggle for the political and economic absorption of Land occupied by lower races for the economic tap root of which the necessity of the advanced Capitalist Nations to find outlet for good and more Capital.
Imperialism can be defined as the expansion beyond one’s border, either by conquest, influence or by both. It involves one going beyond borders searching for market and raw materials.
TYPES OF CAPITALISM
Chronologically, There were three major historical stages/types of Capitalism as raised by the different and various scholars from school of thought as follows:-
a) Commercial capitalism (1500 –1750) or mercantilism.
b) Competitive / industrial capitalism (1750 – 1875).
c) Monopoly / Finance capitalism (1875 - present).
A. COMMERCIAL CAPITALISM / MERCHANT CAPITALISM
During this stage, Europeans closed their borders in search of precious metals such as gold and silver. The powers were not interested in the social and economic transformation of the societies they met, they were only interested inplundering and raiding.
Although this type of capitalism was characterized by primitive accumulation of capital, it also stimulated the industrial revolution in Europe.
B. COMPETITIVE / INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
This type of capitalism was characterized by the mushrooming of many manufacturing industries that were small in size but competing in the production and maximization of profit. The main objectives of this type of capitalism were to:-
(i) Acquire markets for European manufactured goods. (ii) Procure raw materials.
During the industrial capitalism, there is a bitter struggle among capitalistic for increasing production levels so as to maximize profits. In the course of these struggles some capitalists are destroyed while others grow rich; therefore to survive the capitalists must increase labor productivity which is done through theintroduction of more efficient machines.
FEATURES OF COMPETITIVE INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
1. The role of the State is Minimal.
This was because of the belief in free trade policy or sometimes called “Laissez faire” policy under free trade, the production and distribution of goods and servicesis determined bythe market forces and not the state.
2. Most Enterprises are Small and Competitive.
They complete among themselves to increase production and maximize profits. There is no Monopoly in the marketsor investments.
3. Protection of Tariff Policies.
Tariff policies are still protective in character that is they aim at protecting homeindustries.
4. Lack of Control in Bank Production.
Banks are not controlling production; they are only agents of payments that arereceiving deposits.
5. Raw Materials are important but not crucial.
Raw materials are important but not crucial, that is the European powers could do without raw materials from Africa.
EFFECTS OF COMPETITIVE CAPITALISM IN AFRICA
(a) Abolition of Slave Trade.
The European powers abolished slave trade in Africa so as to get markets where they can sell their manufactured goods and raw materials. The European powers wanted the market but slaves would not provide them, hence this necessitated the abolitionof slave trade.
(b)Introduction of Legitimate Trade.
Legitimate trade refers to the type of trade that involved the buying and selling of natural resources; the European powers introduced legitimate trade whichwould make it possible to get raw materials such as palm oil, rubber and coffee needed by the European powers.
(c) Division of Africa among the European trading companies that shared Africa amongst them.
These companies included British South Africa company that controlled South Africa, Zimbabwe + Zambia while the imperial British East Africa company controlled Uganda, Kenya and Zanzibar. These companies were searching for markets and raw materials that were needed by their respective government.
(d)Fall and Rise of Some States.
Competitive industrial capitalism led to the fall some states in Africa because it involved the abolition of slave trade on which some states like Dahomeydepended on, it also contributed to the rise of states because African state accumulation a lot of wealth out of the legitimatetradewhich was used to build states suchas the Kingdom of King Jaja of Opobo.
(e) Influx of Foreigners.
It let to the influx of many foreigners, especially Europeans. These groups of Europeans included Explorers, Missionaries and traders, who later on paved way for the colonization of Africa by Europe.
Monopoly capitalism was characterized by the predominance of monopolies. Monopolies were formed to reduce stiff competition in the production process.
It is subdivided into:-
(a) 1830 - 1947
This wascharacterized by colonization of territories by individual countries.
(b)1947 – Present
This was characterized by colonization of territoriesby more than one country.
CHARACTERISTICS OF MONOPOLY CAPITALISM
Lenin identified five characteristics of monopoly capitalism:-
1. Concentration and Centralization of Capital.
Under monopoly capitalism, Production becomes more concentrated and centralized under one big company. Monopoles may also set prices very low with objectives of preventing more industries joining the market, so that they canmaintain their monopoly.
2. Merging of Bank Capital and industrial Capital to Form Finance Capital.
In their drive for more profit, monopolistic companies did not confine only on the production of commodities but also invest in the banking sector. Under monopoly capitalism, bank does not only act as agents of payments but also control production boards on monopolistic companies such as British Petroleum (BP) and General Motors’ (GM).
3. Export of Capital as opposed to Export of Commodities.
Under Monopoly capitalism, monopolistic companies dominated the production and market in their countries but they now cross their borders to control market and production in other countries hence they turn into international monopolistic associations.These associations divide the world among themselves; examples are General motors (GM), British Petroleum (BP) and Moil Company.
4. Completion of Division of the World among the Imperialist Powers. During this stage all countries are drawn in to the orbit of capitalism. The colonial system became part of the capitalist world economy whereby the capitalist sought for colonies to satisfy the needs of capitalism.
These needs included market, raw materials, cheap labour and investment areas. When the 19thC which came close world capitalism retained all the basic features of capitalism while it developed new ones.
THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA AND THE QUESTION OF EUROPEAN BALANCE OF POWER.
This wasone of the largest Congresses in Europe. TheCongress took place from the Autumn of 1814 to 1815.The Allies and other European Powers met at Vienna in order to discuss the future of Europe after defeat of Napoleon. It was understood that the major decision making would be reserved to Big Four among the Allies – Austria, Britain, Prussia and Russia.
The Chief delegates of these Powers were:-
1. The Austrian Foreign Minister – Metternich.
2. The British Foreign Secretary – Castlereagh
3. The Prussian Chancellor – Hardenberg
4. The Russian Foreign Minister – Nesselrode (Overshadowed by his Master, Tsar Alexander (I) But Metternich and his company had to acknowledge that they could not get very far without the cooperation of France, and the Big Four became the „Big Five‟
AIMS OF THE CONGRESS
With others during the Congress – the prior-congress aimswere;-
ØTo make or approve detailed arrangement for sharing the spoilsof victory, bearing in mind that the great Powers had already made a number of preliminary agreements.
ØTo create a stable Europe unlikely to suffer further great upheavals. During the Congress, many frontiers problems in Europe were set to avoid further crushes.
OUTCOMES OF THE CONGRESS
From the above aims, the following outcomes were reached:-
ØThe Kingdom of Poland was created and Alexander kept as a King – then problem of Poland and Saxony was solved.
ØPrussia gained Swedish – Pomerania and Small Rhineland States.
ØAustrian gained from Italy – Lombardy, Modena, Parma and Tuscany, also gained Venetia and Venice.
ØBritish gained West Indies, Ceylon, the Cape of Good Hope (she made payment to the Dutch). Mauritius, Guiana, Malta, the Ionian Islands and Heligoland.
ØThe thirty – eight remaining States of Germany, including Prussia, Bavaria and Hannover agreed to form a German Confederation under the Presidency of Austria.
ØThe Balance of Power was decided to avoid any other crush among European Societies.
ØThe Map of Europe was redrawn to create thenew Europe.
WEAKNESS OF THE CONGRESS.
vThe Congress ignored one other factor which had helped to bring about the downfall of Napoleon – the rise of national feeling. Nations and peoplesbandied about as though they were goods, to supply „Compensation‟ here or constitute a barrier state there. Example – Norwegians, Belgians, Boers, Finns, Italians, Serbs and Poles were placed under foreign governments they soon intenselydisliked.
vNothingat all in this Congress was donefor the Italians.
vThey did not, it is true, perceive the strength of the rising force of Nationalism; but the aggressive nationalism that they had recently seen, that of France, seemed to them a treat to European civilization and a danger that must be contained.
Despite the weakness discussed above the congress also resulted into the signing of the Quadruple Alliance which renewed in the second treaty of Parisin November 1815, Russia, Austria, Prussia and Britain agreed not only to allyif necessary in defense of the post-war settlement but to meet in future congresses to discuss problems as occasion arose. With other Congress in Europe, AfricanColonization was around the corner.
FEATURES OF IMPERIALISM
From a “popular outline” Imperialism, the Highest stage of Capitalism – V.I Lenin described that we must give a definition of Imperialism that will include thefollowing five of its basic features;-
ØThe Concentration of production and capital has developed to such a higher stage that it has created Monopolies which a play decisive role in economic life only few people during Imperialism era monopolized the whole economy into their few hands.
ØThe merging of Bank Capital with Industrial Capital and the creation, on the basis of this “Finance Capital”, of a financial oligarchy. Banks and Industrial Capital work hand in hand (merge) to create a big financial capitals to run the World Economy.
ØThe export of Capital as distinguished from the export of commodities acquires exceptional importance. During imperialism, export of Capital abroad was very much emphasized than an exportation of commodities.
ØThe formation of international monopolistic capitalist associations which share the World among themselves. The monopolies were established to avoid competition and export capital outside to satisfy their needs.
ØThe territorial division of the whole World among the biggest capitalist powers is completed. This was the final stage of Imperialism which resulted into the total colonization of African Continent.
THE RISE OF GERMANY AND ITALY AND ITS IMPACTS
Nationalism can be defined as the desire to be free from foreign rule or occupation. European nationalism was a manifestation of the political will of the Europeans to free themselves from foreign domination and oppression.
Nationalism in various European countries aimed at uniting the nations and liberates them from foreign control; this is what led to the German and Italian unification.
Since 1700, Nationalism became an important force in international relations; the development of European nationalism was closely linked with the development of monopoly capitalism.
Due to the demands of monopoly capitalism, three was a need to protect none markets but protecting the markets meant unification which was achieved through nationalism.
The rise of nationalism occurred along with the development of a political unit whichis called a nation/state.
Before 1840‟s – Germany and Italy were not that much united as they aretoday. Chaos, misunderstanding and selfishness of some states made separation among Germany and Italian States hence retard Social and Economicdevelopment in those countries.
Desire/feelings of Nationalism which before rose in France and taken as threat to other European nations, now became valuable and precious idea that had crowned to solve economic and political problems in most of European countries, Germany and Italy wereone of them.
Here below we will discuss in detail how Italy and Germany created unificationthat succeeded to draw new historical map in the World, hence, industrial development and military advancement which laterthreatened theWorld Peace.
FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTED TO THE RISE OF EUROPEAN NATIONALISM
(a) Development of Monopoly Capitalism.
Due to the demands of monopoly capitalism, there was a need to protect home markets but this meant unification which had to be achieved by getting rid of colonial rule.
(b)Dislike of Foreign Rule.
The major goal of nationalism was to unite the nations and free those from foreign rule or dominations, this goal led to the German and Italian unificationthat were protesting against French occupation.
Education exposed the evils of colonial rule, hence stimulating nationalistic sentiments (feelings). Education made it possible for people to speak the same language, hence cultivating a strong sense of unity which facilitated the development of a main state.
The improvement of communication made it possible for people to travel from one place to another which cultivated a sense of unity that contributed to the rise of European nationalism.
THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY (1820 –1870/1859-1870).
As we have seen before, Italy was scattered into various states which also fall into the hands of foreigners. More effort had to be made in return of Italy on its origin form after a long time of suffering which ended into making other states wealthy.
The Italian had been subjected to foreign domination's for many years for example, towards the end of the 19thCentury; Napoleon invaded Italy in the famous Italian campaignwhereby the Italians were put under French control.
Following Napoleons’ defeat in 1815, the Italians were again subjected to Australian domination until 1870 when they regained. The Italian disliked foreign domination and on the growth of nationalism, different nationalist movements were organized by different leaders.
(i) In 1820, they formed the carbonari movement which was mainly anorganization of intellectuals.
(ii) In1831, Givseppe Mazzini founded the young Italy movement.
There were various stages in the Italian unification in which different territories were liberated from Austrian control. It should be noted that the liberation of Rome completed the Italian unification. The greatest maker of the Italian unification was Count Camillo Cavo.
OBSTACLES IN THE ITALIAN UNIFICATION BEFORE 1850
(a) The Position of Pope and the Influence of the Catholic Church.
The pope could not fight with Austria because it was a major Catholic state and consequently feared opposition from all Catholics. Without the support of thepope, the unification of Italy wasimpossible.
The pope enjoyed international sensitivity from all the Catholics of the world thus attacking the pope would force ambitious Catholic state to protect the pope.
(b)Military Superiority of the Australian.
The Austrian empire had a well trained organized and equipped army. The Austrians also had a well established spying network on the other hand; the Italian nationalists were not military strong by 1848. The carbonari movement and young Italy movement did not have organized armies.
(c) Metternich and the Metternich System.
Metternich had divided Italy into small and different states, each with its ownparliament. The Italians were one nationality but they could not agree on a single plan because of the political meetings, associations and freedom of the press were banned. A strong detective system kept Metternich informed of all those movements that were fighting for independence and they were consequentlycontrolled.
(d)Economic Backwardness of Italy.
Economic backwardness of the Italian states partly hindered the struggle for independence. The Italians depended largely on subsistence farming, the level of education were also low. There were also small middle class to champion a serious revolution against the Austrians. The Italian economy lacked a strong industrial sector, thus without a sound economic base, the nationalist movements were frustrated due to financial difficulties.
(e) Lack of a Clear and able Leadership.
This was a great hindrance in the struggle for independence before 1849. The Italians lacked ready and determined leadership against Austrian domination. King Charles Albert of Piedmont would have united the Italians if he had accepted to lead the revolution in 1848, but he feared Austrian might and he reluctantly accepted the offer.
(f) Lack of Mass Mobilization.
Most Italians up to 1849 were not nationally conscious of the need for unification and independence. The Carbonari movement was simply on organization of intellectuals, while the young Italian movements tried to use the youth to appeal to all sections of the masses, thus these movements failed to win enoughsupport from the masses.
ITALIANS GROUPS OF STATE DURING UNIFICATION
By the time of unification, Italywas divided into the following groups (States)
1. Naples and Sicily (Kingdom of two Sicilies)
The Kingdoms were under Ferdinand I, a member of the Spanish branch of the Bourbon Family.
2. The Papal States (the state of the Church)
The state ruled by the Pope who hindered the development of communications for many years by refusing to allow the construction of Railway and Telegraph within hisdomains.
3. Modena, Parma and Tuscany (in central Italy) These areas were under Hapsburg.
4. Lombardy and Venetia.
Lombardy (capital – Milan) was themost fertile province in Italy.
Venetia (with Venice port) was probably therichest trading centre in Italy.
5. Kingdom of Sardinia.
Included Piedmont, Genoa and Savoy. One of the most powerful states in Italy.
KEY FIGURES IN ITALIAN UNIFICATION
1. Giuseppe Mazzini.
The prophet and full time revolutionary who always wore black as a sign of mourning for Italians disunited, and in many regions oppressed. He was sentenced to death and spent much time of his life in exile. Hewas amember of Carbonari and the founder of Young Italy. He was a fervent preacher of the necessity of education, self – sacrifice and rebellion.
2. Giuseppe Garibaldi.
A strongest Soldier who fought dangerous battles – played a great role into bringing Italy into one line. He was Volunteer who collected enough soldiers under the shadow of Victor Emmanuel II and attacked French troops in April 1849. He helped in bringing Piedmont and Lombard into Italy.
3. Count Camillo Benso di Cavour.
Perhaps, he was greatest of the makers of Italy. He was Minister of Agriculture, Industry, Commerce and Finance. In 1852, he was elected a Prime Minister of Sardinia. He did a lot for Italy during his life.
STEPS TOWARDS ITALIAN UNIFICATION
As we have shown above, most of Italian States were under foreign rule henceforce should be applied to bring them under one roof. Some of those steps taken are shown below;
1. Alliance with Napoleon III, 1858.
In 1858, Napoleon III of France and Cavour of Sardinia signed a pact of Plombieres and the subsequent treaty by which France was to help drive Austrians from Lombardy and Venetia, receiving as her reward from Sardinia the Provinces of Savoy and Nice.
2. War with Austria, 1859.
With Franco – Sardinia friendship – a war with Austria was inevitable in order to rescue Lombardy and Venetia from Austria. By June 1859 Victor Emmanuel and Napoleon III had won the two great battles of Magenta and Salfeno, thereby liberating most of Lombardy.
3. Creation of Kingdom of Italy, March 1861.
With an exception of Rome, other states like Lombardy, Romagna (Emilia), Naples, Sicily and Papal states, a new constitutional and Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed. Only two important Provinces remained to form fully fledged Italy – Venetia and Rome.
4. Italy and Prussia fought Austria, 1866.
Prussia persuaded Italy to ally with her in a war against Austria. Prussia wanted Austria to join her in a War with France while Italy wanted her province of Venetia. Finally, Italy and Prussia got their share from Austria.
5. Creation of Italian State, 1870.
The Franco Prussia War (July 1870) was a great chance for Italy to annex her state of Rome and made it a capital of Italy in 1870. Then, the new Italian State was formed (United and Free) apart from some disputed areas beyond the north easternfrontiers.
REASONS FOR ITALIAN UNIFICATION
Many reasons are produced to clarify the factors behind theUnification of Italy. Among others, the following reasons can beuseful;
vThe desire of having one strong and independent States of Italy. Growing of Nationalist feeling or ideas among Italians was agood catalyst towards Italian Unification.
vThe need of quick development in commerce and agriculture among Italians. Without Unification – development can be slowly attained.
vThe factor of common language (theLatin) as a unifying catalyst among scattered Italian States. Most of scattered Italian States used common Language (Latin) which meant the same culture, hence, speed up development.
vDesire of having rapid industrialization across Italy. Unification could bring about abundant raw materials as well as enough markets for produced goods.
vThe role of prominent statesmen‟s like Giuseppe Garibaldi, Giuseppe Mazzini and Count Camillo Benso di Cavour who worked tirelessly to bringprosperity across Italy.
IMPACTS OF ITALIAN UNIFICATION.
Thefollowing impacts were observed as an outcome of theUnification:-
ØThe Unification quickened industrial development among Italians hence economic development.
ØDue to the Unification, Italy became one of the Capitalist countries whichlater challenged the British supremacy.
ØThe Unification of Italy also threatened the World Peace as it joined Germanyand Austria – Hungary to form Triple Alliance in May 1882.
ØIt created strong militarism in Italy which helped her into implementationof expansionist theory, example she (Italy) invaded Ethiopia in 1935.
BARRIERS TO ITALIAN UNIFICATION
Italian Unification was not an easy process as we have noted before. There was an up anddowns which made it to happen late than it was expected.
vReluctance of Pope to let Papal States joined the Unification. He went forthe extent of refusing the construction of communication networks into histerritory. vMany of Italian States (important once) were under foreign rules which hindered Unification.
vPolitical Selfishness was also an obstacle as no one was ready to sacrifice his throne for Italy prosperity.
vOpposition from other European Nations which wanted to block Italian
THE GERMANY UNIFICATION (1820 – 1871)
The Unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18th January 1871 at the Versailles Palace‟s Hall of Mirrors in France. Princes of the German States gathered there to proclaim Wilhelm of Prussia as Emperor Wilhelm of the German Empire after the French Capitulation in the Franco – Prussian War.
For a long period, German states were victims of foreign domination, under Napoleon Bonaparte, the German states were grouped together to form the Rhine confederation, which was put under French control.
After the downfall of Napoleon, the German states were again grouped together to form the German confederation, which was put under Austrian control.
The 1871 Germany Unification meant a continuum of the large Unification process among the Italian inhabitants was dissolved.
German nation was a product of more than 300 states which scattered over the huge land of German, most important Statesfall under the foreign hands.
OTTO VON BISMARCK
He was one the most brilliant diplomatists of all time, dwarfed every other politician in Germany, outwitted Napoleon III so completely as to make him rather pathetic figure. His attitude was so extreme that Frederick William feared to promote him to office. In truth Bismarck, unlike Cavour, believed that nothing could be done without force; he therefore stroveto preserve the greatest force available in Germany, the extremely militarist State of Prussia.
In 1862, Otto Von Bismarck was summoned from Paris to Berlin by KingWilliam I and appointed as Minister President of Prussia. Then, the destiny of Prussia was at last on his hands and with it the destiny not only of Germany but of much of Europe. Look at the following quotation:-
“Germany has its eyes not on Prussia’s Liberalism but on its might. The greatest question of the day will not be decided by speeches and resolutions of majorities, but byBlood and Iron”
So Bismarck believed, not like Cavour that
“Wrong must sometimes be committed in the interests of the State, but that nothing committed in the interests of the State could be wrong - and particularly if that State was Prussia”
Road to Germany Unification.
The same as what happened in Italy, Germany Unification also cut through rough roads towards its achievements. Several battles had to be fought to implement the phrase of „Blood and Iron‟ in order to unite Germany. The following Battles were noted:-
1. Prussia and Austria Vs Denmark, 1864.
In 1864, Prussia and Austria made an Alliance to fight Denmark in order to rescue two important provinces of German, Schleswig and Holstein. The war ended with great victory to Prussia when she succeeded to annex her provinces as a startingpoint to Unification.
2. The Austro – Prussian War, 1866 (Seven Weeks War)
At this time, Italy had to alien with Prussia to fight Austria as she wanted to rescue Venetia from Austria. This gave Bismarck opportunity of annexing important areas under Austrian Power, aimed at preparing for the future War with France. From the War, Prussia gained Holstein, Hanover, Nassau, Hessen – Cassel and the free city of Frankfurt.
In 1867, the north German Confederation was established through treaty of Prague, the Southern German territories of Bavaria, Baden and Württemberg had to beleft outside.
vWilliam I, the King of Prussia, was the President of Confederation. vOtto VonBismarck became Chancellor.
3. The Franco – Prussian War, 1870/1871.
The 6th July 1870‟s EMS telegram was a great opportunity for Bismarck to declare war against France. The war fought from 19th July 1870 to 10th May 1871 when the treaty of Frankfurt was signed. This was an important battle which ended with the creation of German Empire on 18th January, 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles. William I was proclaimed as the first German Emperor or Keiser.
OBSTACLES BARRIERS TO ITALIAN UNIFICATION
Between 1815 and 1848, the forces of nationalism became very strong and theGermans began demanding for a united and a free Germany, but with little successbecause of the following obstacles.
(a) Disunity at the Frankfort Parliament.
The members of the parliament lacked a common plan; the nationalists wanted a united and free Germany, while the liberals wanted a democratic and a constitutional government. There were also divisions based on religion, whereby the Catholics wanted Austrian leadership to remain and the Protestants(Anglicans) wanted a united Republic.
(b)Austrian Military Might.
The Austrians had a well trained, equipped and a large army contrary to the Germans who lacked a strong and an organized army thus without it, they found it difficult to defeat the Austrians, so as to regain their independence.
(c) Lack of a Sound Economy.
German states depended on agriculture as the basis of their economy. Transport and communication were not yet well developed, hence without a sound economic base; the Germans could not strengthen their military power and mobilize the local population against the Austrians.
(d)Lack of able Leadership.
The revolution in PRUSSIA lacked a strong and able leadership against Austria domination. King Fredrick William IV of Prussia would have led the revolutionbut he was opposed to liberalism, thus without a capable and able leadership, the nationalists movements failed to achievetheir objectives by 1849.
(e) Foreign Intervention of Russia.
Czar Nicholas I was opposed to liberal movements both in Russia and its neighbours. He had used the militaryto crash liberal movements in Russia.
It was therefore not a surprise that the establishment of a liberal government in Germans would face opposition from Russia, indeed in 1849; Russia sent her troopsto crash liberal movements in Germany.
Despite all their problems, German unification was attained in 1871 and theGermanempire was proclaimed at Versailles.
IMPACTS/ EFFECTS OF EUROPEAN NATIONALISM IN EUROPE
1. European nationalism led to the emergence of new states.
States that emergrd were such as Greece, Belgium, Italy and Germany. This was because these nations unified themselves in order to be strong and be able to compete with the former strong nations such as France and Britain, in termsof market, raw materials, industrialization, military and areas for investment.
2. Led to intensification of national rivalries and antagonism among European powers.
This was because the former big powers which were France and Britain started to be in antagonism with the newly unified nations like Germany and Italy in terms of raw materials, areas for investments and markets.
3. Emergence of Hostile Military Alliance.
It led to emergence of hostile military alliance which were the triple alliance and thetriple entente of Britain, France and Russia.
4. It led to the disturbance of Balance of Power in Europe.
The balance of power which was agreed at the Vienna congress in 1815 was upset by Germany after it had undergo unification because after unificationGermany started to be powerful in terms of military, industrialization, monopolization of trade, look for market, areas for investment and therefore the power which was formerly dominated was now disturbed by the newly unified countries.
5. It led to the breakout of the world war.
It led to the breakout of the world war that was World War I and World War II, this wars affected world socially, economically and politically.
6. The Unification led to the rise of the new imperialism in Europe from 1850’s.
This was because European nationalism accelerated the rise and development of nationalism in Europe which brought expansionist tendencies among Europeanpowers to go in other parts of the world to expand their boundaries.
EFFECTS OF EUROPEAN NATIONALISM IN AFRICA.
1. It led to the influx of agents of colonialism in Africa like explorers, missionaries, and traders.
These were normally searched the information about the potential strategic and navigable rivers of Africa and they sent information to their countries about the wealth found in African continent.
2. Led to the Scramble for African Continent.
This was because those agents of colonialism started to explore and search thepotential information about African continent. Example fertile soil for agriculture, navigable rivers, that is Niger delta, Congo basin etc. mining areas and thereafter their mother nationsrushed to Africa to look for those areas.
3. Led to the partition of Africa after the scramble which was done by European big powers about the potential of African continent.
Therefore the partition of Africa was done during the Berlin conference of November 1884 to February 1885.
4. Led to Colonization of Africa in the last Quarter of the 19thC.
This was where by the big powers after the scramble for Africa were able to control Africa in all aspects in order to protect and satisfy European interests especially for the development of capitalism in Europe.
5. Led to the establishment of colonial state as an extension of metropolitan rule (colonial rule) in Africa.
Therefore the work of colonial state was to make sure that the interest of colonialism like the establishment of colonial economy such as plantations settlers and peasant economy, mining, establishment of administration was to be achieved for the interests of colonialist.
6. It led to the Establishment of Colonial Economy in African Continent.
This was the work done by colonial state in order to make sure that European colonialists should continue on the expense of Africans.
7. Led to destruction of African Culture by introducing European Culture.
Example African culture practices things such as traditions, customs, norms, dressing styles, eating, marriage, etc. were totally forbidden and destroyed by Europeans.
8. Led to the outbreak of the World Wars.
That was First World War (WWI) of 1914-1918 and Second World War (WWII) of 1939-1945, these world wars affected Africain all aspects of life such asoccurrence of deaths, famine, Economic hardship and change of colonial masters.
CAUSES OF GERMAN UNIFICATION.
ØThe desire of Industrial Prosperity in Germany was an important factor toward German Unification. Unification could embrace German with abundant raw materials as well as enough marketsfor her goods.
ØThe great role of King William I, Otto Von Bismarck and other Germans activists, who worked tirelessly in bringing German States together and achieve the dreams they had.
ØThe work of Literature and Philosophers contributed to the German Unification. The work of writers like Von Herder and others inspired manyGermans hence occurrence ofUnification.
ØThe need of having strong military states of Germany that could bring World under her umbrella. Her ambition later threatened World Peace and caused WWI.
ØThe German culture which shared by almost 300 states was a good catalyst towards German Unification.
IMPACTS OF GERMAN UNIFICATION.
vIt led to the rapid growth of Industries in German States which later challenged the British hegemony.
vGermany became one of the most powerful States in military aspects to the extent of threateningWorld Peace.
vThe Unification contributed to the occurrence of Military Alliance – especially the formationof Triple Alliance in May 1882.
vGerman Unification speeded up the idea of Nationalism to other European nations like Balkan States, Hungary and others hence chaos inmost of Europeancountries.
vGerman through its aggressive policies led to the occurrence of WWI (1914-1918) which disrupted the World Economy.
MANIFESTATIONS OF EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM IN THE 19TH CENTURY.
One of the European Imperialism Manifestation in the 19th Century was the development of “Armed Camps” in Europe. Trough Armed Camps, more chaos witnessed around whole Europe which lead to the First and Second World Wars. Here below we will explore all of these in details to you clear picture.
A. MILITARY ALLIANCE CAMPS
The desireof creating Military AllianceSystems in Europe hasbeen started longtime ago. Example in 1872 there was formation of Three Emperors League in which Germany (under Bismarck), Austria – Hungary and Russia signed a friendship pact whichbounded them for some time.
The defeat of France during Franco – Prussian war of 1871 had a tremendous impact in Europe. Before the war, the European powers were Britain and France but after the war, the new powers were Britain and Germany which meant that there was a shift in the balanceof power.
After the defeat of France, Bismarck directed his efforts to isolate France in order to maintain her in a weak and defeated position by farming military alliances.
Bismarck forged military alliances with different European countries, this included;
(a) The Dual Alliance of 1879.
In 1879, Germany and Austrian –Hungary signed a treaty which formed a defensive alliance called the “dual Alliance” This alliance was intended to strengthen and protect Germany from France and at the same time protect Austria – Hungary against Russia. By 1870, Austria – Hungary was threatened by Russian Army ships in the Balkan regions and feared that Russia might attack her.
(b)The Triple Alliance of 1882.
In 1882, Bismarck formed the Triple Alliance which was intended to bedefensive and to completely isolate and weaken France. The triple alliance came into existence byadmitting Italy into the “Dual Alliance”.
France and Italy had both been interested in Tunisia; Italy became frustrated and started looking for alliance against France. The Triple alliance would therefore defend Germany, Austria and Italy.
(c) The Dual Alliance of 1892.
By 1992, both France and Russia felt insecure and they decided to make a defensive agreement called the Dual Alliance against the triple alliance of 1882. In this alliance, the two powers agreed to help each other in case of an attack by Germany.
(d)The Anglo – Japanese Alliance of 1902.
For many years Britain had concentrated on looking after vast empire and had kept out of European affairs, this policy was known as splendid isolation. When her colonial rural such as France and Russia combined to form the dual alliance of 1892; Britain was forced to forge an alliance with Japan with the objective of protecting her economic interests in the Far East.
(e) The Triple Entente of 1907.
In 1907, Russia was admitted into the “Dual alliance”, which led to theformation of the Triple Entente, consulting of Britain, Russia and Japan. These powers agreed to help each other in case of war.
In order to maintain stability in Europe, the European powers adopted the nationof balance of power.
B. ARMS RACE
Arms race refers to the intense competition between nations to accumulate technologically advanced and military strategic weapon system. The most prominent instance of such competition was the rapid developed by the United States of America (U.S.A) and the soviet union of more and better nuclear weapons during the cold war.
The term arms race its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. Each party. Competes to produce large number of weapons, greater armies or superior military technology.
CAUSES OF MILITARISM AND ARMS RACES IN EUROPE
The reasons behind formation of Military Alliances cut across many aspects,
from political to economic aspects. The following are some of thosereasons.
ØBismarck‟s determination to isolate France, as she was disturbed with the dreams of revenge from France. She was always wanted to makeFrance not having a chance to alien with any other European Nations.
ØBalkan Nationalism (Pan – Slavism movement) was also a factor behind Arm‟s races in Europe. The hostility between Austria – Hungary and Serbia fastened the military alliances.
ØThe French revenge movement contributed a lot to the formation of military alliances. She wanted an Alliance to annex back her twoProvinces of Lorraine and Alsace which were dominated by Germany since 1871.
ØLong term ambition of Nationalism among many imperialistic nations that led to different misunderstanding between European Nations.
ØImperialistic motives of future expansionism and aggrandizement, and military alliance to seek mutual support, to expand their economic influence beyond Europe.
EFFECTS OF MILITARISM AND ARMS RACES IN EUROPE
vMany people lost their lives due to the use of nuclear or chemical weapons, for example, Nagasaki and Hiroshima in Japan during the Second World War.
vii. It reduced the level of resources that could have been utilized in the provision of social and economic welfare of the people in the super power states and theworld countries
viii. It sharpened the hostility between western block under United Statesof America (U.S.A) and Eastern Block under United Soviet Socialist Republic (U.S.S.R).
vThe emergence of terrorists. Using variousweaponsof massdestruction.
EFFECTS OF MILITARY ALLIANCE
It increased hostility among the Imperialistic nations of variousmilitary Camps. Examplebetween France and Germany.
vThe military camps intensified fear, rivalry and suspicious among imperialist powers.
vThe entangling military camps were accompanied with militarization with overproduction of deadly weapons that made warinevitable.
vIt increased Imperialistic interest nations to expand through the encouragement of annexation and aggression and re-divide the World for imperialist spheres of interest, and desireto fight was inevitable, thusthe War.
C. THE NOTION OF EUROPEAN BALANCE OF POWER
This refers to a policy whereby European powers used military alliances as the determiningfactor in maintaining stability in Europe.
THE FACTORS THAT LED TO THE USE THE NOTION OF EUROPEAN BALANCE OF POWER
The factors that led to the use of this policy:-
(a) Rise of European nationalism.
During this period, colonies were seen as a sign of prestige. They became a test and proof of a nation’s superiority. This belief was bound to force the European powers to look for colonies in Europe, thusdisturbing the balanceof power.
(b)Development of Monopoly Capitalism.
The development of capitalism to the monopoly stage had various demands in Europe. Due to monopoly capitalism, there wasneed for raw materials, markets and cheap labour which could only be satisfied through acquiring colonies. Toprevent European countries from searching for colonies in Europe, the European powers adopted the notion of European balance of power so as to maintain stability.
(c) Emergence of Germany and Italy.
After Germany and Italy achieved their unification, they joined the race for colonies to meet the demands of monopoly capitalism. To maintain stability in Europe, The European powers decided to adopt a notion of European balance of power.
Due to monopoly capitalism, there was a need for markets, raw materials and investment areas. Their needs could only be achieved by acquiring colonies but the European countries were not supposed to look for colonies inside Europe, thus an outlet had to be created and this led to the scramble for and partitionof Africa.
THE BERLIN CONGRESS OF 1878
The Congress of Berlin (13th June – 13th July 1878) was a meeting of the European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empire‟s leading statesman in Berlinin leaders since the 1815 meetings at Vienna after Napoleon‟s defeat. In somewaysthe Congress was dominated by Disraeli, the British Prime Minister.
RESULTS OF THE CONGRESS
The following results rose as the Congress ended in July 1878 in Berlin:-
ØCreation of the Hague Tribunal. In 1899, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia initiated a Conference at the Hague, “The HagueConference, 1899” aimed at setting up of a Tribunal at the Hague to which countries could appeal for arbitration ina dispute.
ØThe Congress created hostility between Serbia and Austria-Hungary which culminated into the occurrence of WWI. During the Congress, Austria-Hungary was given Bosnia-Herzegovina; she wanted this province in order to hamper the development of a strong Serbia. This decision provoked anger among Serbians.
ØThe „Big Bulgaria‟ was divided into two parts, a smaller independent Bulgaria and an independent Macedonia.
ØThe Ottoman Empire, called at the time the „Sick man of Europe‟ was humiliated and significantly weakened, rendering it more liable to domestic unrest and more vulnerable to attack.
THE ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIALISM IN AFRICA
Colonialism refers to the domination or control of one country by another economically, politically and socially.
COLONIAL RIVALRY IN AFRICA, THE MIDDLE EAST AND FAR EAST EUROPEAN SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA.
The scramble for Africa, also known as the race for Africa or Partition of Africa was a process of invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European Powers during the new imperialism period, between 1881 and World War I in 1914.
As a result of the heightened tension between European States in the last quarter of the 19th Century, the partitioning of Africa may be seen as a way for the Europeans to eliminate the threat of European-widewar over Africa.
CAUSES OF THE SCRAMBLE
There are two schools of thoughts that tried to describe reasons behind Scramble and ultimately Partition of African Continent. There Eurocentric school of thought which defended the tragedy and Afro-centric School of thought whichblamed the Colonialists.
CAUSES OF SCRAMBLE ACCORDING TO EUROCENTRIC SCHOOL OF THOUGHT
Europeans always wanted to defend their reasons of colonizing African Continent. The following explanation will show how far Europeans tried to defend their inhumanity acts in Africa.
Europeans claimed that they came in Africa for the reasons of spreading the Word of God and preaching about Christianity in African continent. Accordingto them Africans had no religion hence they came to givethem.
2. Humanitarian Factor
Also Europeans maintained that their presence in Africa was only for the sake of Slave Trade abolition as well as Civilizing Africans who were totally deepened into the dark.
3. European Balance of Power.
When Germany (Prussia) won the Franco – Prussia War of 1870 – European balance of power was violated slowly. Later France and other European Powers started to look for compensation to what they have lost, the, Africa became the Victim.
4. Strategic consideration.
Britain and France both claimed that they colonized Africa for the purpose of protecting their strategic areas in India, Egypt, Middle East, Sudan and other areaswhich were under their protectorate.
5. The French revenge movement.
The end of Franco – Prussia war meant starting point of another race toward satisfactionof having enough Colonies to France.
CAUSES OF SCRAMBLE ACCORDING TO AFRO – CENTRIC SCHOOL OF THOUGHT (REASONS)
Afro – Centric (Marxist) believed different from Eurocentric ideas. Marxist followers believed over the Industrial Revolution as the key factor towards European Colonization of African Continent. The Industrial Revolution in Europe crated the following needs to Africa, hence its Colonization.
1. The Need of Raw Materials.
Due to the rapid growth of Industriesin Europe around 19th Century (From the 2nd half), raw materials were highly needed to feed those growth mushroom like Industries. Africa found to be good for that need – which later accelerated its colonization.
2. The need of areas for Investment.
The surplus capital (profit) obtained from Industries had to be invested somewhere in order to generate more capital for further development. As a result, more plantations and mines were opened to give room for investors to invest in those areas.
3. The need of Cheap Labour.
It was found that, when Plantations would be opened in Africa – the labour accesswould also be simple as many of them would easily befound.
4. The need of Market.
When the Slave trade was abolished, that did not mean Africans were free, but was an initial stage towards long journey of suffering. Africans now became markets to large produced manufactured goods in Europe. Africabecame victim for their own fake freedom.
THE PROCESS OF EUROPEAN COLONIZATION OF AFRICA
The European colonization of Africa was a planed process which aimed at making the African continent dependant. The following explanation can justify the abovestatement.
PENETRATION OF AGENTS OF COLONIALISM
This was the first process which taken by European among many processeswent through. These agents had to penetrate to the heart of Africa in searching of potential areas for future investment.
The first group to be sent in Africa was Explores whose main activities were exploring various potential areas for later Colonization.
Explores like David Livingstone, Krapf, Burton, Henry Stanley and many morewere sent to Africa to accomplish the named task. Trough their contributions, many potential areas were opened in Africa.
This group came in Africa after the work of explores. They came under the umbrella of spreading Christianity in Africa, especially in the areas found to have strong States. They wanted to impact faith, harmony, obedience and trusts to Africans as the way of making them accept Colonialists without resistances.
The work was carried out by the people like Dr. David Livingstone and John Moffat under the help of Christian Associations like French White Fathers (Catholic), Christian Missionary Society (C.M.S), British Foreign Bible Society and many more.
The last group was Traders who worked hard to establish Plantations and Mines asan initial stage towards Colonial Economy prosperity.
The group included people like Carl Peters (Germany) with Imperial Germany East Africa Company (GEACO), William Mackinnon (British) with Imperial British East Africa Company (IBEACO), Cecil Rhodes (British) with British South African Company (BSACo) and Royal Niger Company under George Goldie. Traders played a great role in establishment and later imposition of Colonialism in Africa.
GENERAL ROLES OF FORE-RUNNERS (AGENTS).
Qn: How explorers, Missionaries and traders paved way for establishment of colonial rule in Africa.
(a) They reported about the wealth in Africa which would enrich the European capitalist countries.
The information given by the Missionaries, Explorers and Traders excited the interests of European countries to come and seek their fortune in Africa. Dr. Living stone reported that East Africa had fertile soil and the environment was suitable for European settlements, given the economic conditions in Europe, such asthe need for raw materials, they had to rush to Africa
(b) They encouraged African Chiefs to Sign Treaties
The treaties that signed by African Leaders later became justified claims for the occupation of African territories. Moffat, an Anglican Missionary, encouraged chief Lubengula to sign a treaty with British, which eventually led to the British colonization of Zimbabwe.
(c) Some of the agents for example Christian missionaries’ brain washed the minds of the Africans through their preaching and teachings.
They softened the minds of the Africans to be God fearing because of the preaching, devour African Christians believed that Christianity was the greatest gift from Europe and this was reflected in Nigeria and Buganda where the Africans welcomed colonization.
(d) The Christian missionaries paved way for the establishment of the colonies rule.
This was because they regarded colonial rule as necessary for both the spread of Christianityand the abolition of slave tradein Africa
(e) They chartered companies laid down the initial infrastructure.
Those later facilitated colonial administration policies. The roads and railways became asource of reinforcement in termsof troops and manpower.
(f) They appealed to European government to come and occupy parts of Africa.
This was especially to the areas which they have visited and developed. For example Dr. Livingstone appealed to Britain to come and occupy central Africa and Britainresponded by colonizing central Africa.
When the work of Colonialism agents completed, Berlin Conference knocked the door to clear up ways towards real Colonization of African Continent. Therewas chaos and misunderstanding all over African Continent between Europeans who worked hard (through their agents) in signing up various bogustreaties. One area in Africa scrambled with more than a Colony; hence BerlinConference came to clear the cloud of Warthat covered Europe
THE BERLIN CONFERENCE (1884 – 1885)
In 1884 at the request of Portugal, Germany Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck called together the major Western Powers of the World to negotiate end confusions over the Control of Africa. Bismarck appreciated the opportunity to expand Germany‟s sphere of influence over Africa and desired to force Germany‟s rivals to struggle with one another for territory.
Fourteen countries were represented by a plethora of Ambassadors when the Conference opened in Berlin on November 15, 1884.
The countries represented at the time included Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherland, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway (Unified from 1814-1905), Turkey and the United States of America. Out of these 14 nations, France, Germany, Great Britain and Portugal were the major players in the Conference, controlling most of Colonial Africa at the time.
OBJECTIVES OF THE CONFERENCE
vTo deal with matters relating to European trade and territorial claims in Africa.
vAimed at discussing and settling the existing territorial disputes over theCongo and Niger basins as well as other parts of African Continent.
vThe conference also had to define spheres of influence so that other European nations could claim them.
vAnother important aim was to sort out and discuss the views from different European nations on Slave trade activities and its abolition in the African territories.
RESOLUTIONS OF THE CONFERENCE
The resolutions were from General Act of the Berlin Conference which fixed the following points:
ØThe Free State of Congo was confirmed as private property of the Congo Society. Thus the territory of today‟s Democratic Republic of Congo, some two million square kilometers, was made essentially theproperty of Leopold II (because of the terror regime established, it would eventually become a Belgium Colony)
ØThe 14 Signatory powers would have free trade access through the Congobasinas well as Lake Niassa and East of this in an area south of 50N.
ØThe Niger and Congo Rivers were made freefor ship trafficking.
ØAn international prohibition of the Slave Trade was signed.
ØThe Principle of Effective was introduced to stop powers setting up colonies in name only.
ØWhich regions each European powers had an exclusive right to pursue thelegal ownership of land (legal in the eyesof the other).
PRINCIPLES OF BERLIN CONFERENCE
During the conference, a number of resolutions were reached by the Europeanpowers.These included the following:-
(a) The Principle of Effective Occupation.
This principle stated that all European powers that had colonies in Africa had to effectively control their colonies by establishing infrastructures such as roads and railways. The powers also agreed to maintain law and order in their colonies.
This principle stated that in the process of colonial acquisition, the Europeanpowers had to notify or inform other powers about their colonial possessions so as to minimize clashes over the same colonies because the aim of the conference was to ensure that the scramble and partition of Africa takes place peacefully.
(c) Fire Navigation on the Niger and Congo Basins.
The European powers agreed that the Niger and the Congo basins will be free for navigation by all European powers. This was to avoid any European powerfrom monopolizing the two water ways which may cause conflicts.
(d)Abolition of Slave Trade.
The European powers agreed to stop slave trade in their colonies and introducelegitimate trade. Legitimate trade would enable the capitalist powers to acquiremarkets and raw materials which werethe needs of monopoly capitalism.
Many historians believe that the main objective of Berlin Conference was to divide Africa among European Nations. But some historians like Olusoga and Erichsenbelieves different – the following explanation describes their strands:-
“It is a common misconception that the Berlin Conference simply „divides up‟ the African Continent between the European Powers. In fact, all the foreign Ministers who assembled in Bismarck‟s Berlin Villa had agreed in which regions of Africa each European Power had the right to „pursue‟ the legal ownership of land, free from interference by any other. The land itself remained the legal property of Africans”.
Despite the description made by Olusoga and his colleague – Erichsen, the facts will remain the same that “Berlin Conference used as a tool of dividing up AfricanContinent among European Imperialistic Powers”
PRINCIPLE OF EFFECTIVITY
The Principle of Effectivity stated that Powers could hold colonies only if they actually possessed them: in other words, if they flew their flag there, and if they established an administration in the territory to govern it with a police force tokeep order.
The Colonial power also had to make use of the Colony economically. If the Colonial Power did not do these things, another power could do so and take over the territory. It therefore became important to get leaders to sign a protectorate treatyand to have a presence sufficient to police the area.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CONFERENCE
vThe Berlin Conference resulted into opening up of African interior areas for colonization. All important areas in the interior were opened and Colonized by the Colonial Powers.
vThe partition did not take into consideration tribal boundaries. vThe Conference intensified the scramble rather than minimizing it.
Example the 1898 Fashoda incidence.
vGermany fulfilled her ambition of acquiring Colonies in Africa especially near or between FrenchColonies as in the case of Congo and Cameroon in order to defeat FrenchMove in Africa.
THE ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE IN AFRICA
The partition of Africa marked the end of Africans political independence and the beginning of subjection to foreign rule. In the process of establishing colonial rule, the Europeans powers used different techniquesdepending on the nature and attitude of the native population towards colonial intrusion.
TECHNIQUES USED TO IMPOSE COLONIAL RULE Thesetechniques included thefollowing:-
(a) Treaty Signing.
This was one of the most common techniques used by the Europeans to establish colonial rule in Africa. This method was used in areas that did not oppose the establishment of colonial rule. The colonial powers convinced African local leaders to sign treaties of protection, protecting them against their local and foreign rivals. It should be noted that these treaties were used by the colonial powers to control African territories. In Tanganyika Karl Peters signed treaties with Africanchiefs which led to German colonization of Tanganyika.
(b)Use of Force.
Sometimes, the colonial powers used the military to establish colonial rule in Africa. This method was used in areas that resisted the establishment of colonial rule in East Africa, the Germans used the military against the Hehe in Tanganyika, and the British used the military against the Nandi in Kenya and Kabalega of Uganda. The colonial powers used the military because they were determined to exploit African resources.
(c) Alliances and Collaboration
This method was mainly used in areas where two societies were in conflictsin situation of enmity, the colonial powers allied with one society against the other and finally control all of them together. In Tanganyika the Germans allied with the Sangu and Bena against the Hehe, but after defeating the Hehe theGermans controlled all of them together. In central Africa, the British allied with chief Lewanyika of Lozi Kingdom against Lobengula but when Lobengula wasdefeated, the Britishcontrolled all of them together.
(d)Gun Butt Diplomacy.
This is the colonial powers used treaties of force rather than force itself to force Africans to submit to colonial rule. This method was used by the German in1884 to force a Sultan of Zanzibar to submitto Karl Peter’s treaty. In 1897, theBritish used this method to forceJajaof Opobo to submit to their control.
(e) Mercenary Technique.
This was a method whereby the colonial powers used Africans to fight against other Africans. The Africans, who were used, had no blood ties with those being invaded. In Tanganyika the Germans used the Rugaruga to defeat their fellow Africans.
AFRICAN REACTION TOWARDS COLONIAL RULE
The imposition of colonial rule in Africa did not go unchallenged, the Africans reaction to colonial rule was not homogeneous it varied from one society to another.
TECHNIQUES WHICH THE AFRICANS USED AGAINST THE COLONIAL RULES
The techniques which the Africans used against the colonial rules establishment included the following:-
(a) Active Resistance.
This was a physical African reaction characterized by the use of arms or violence against the establishment of colonial rule. Sometimes, activeresistances was a spontaneous reaction while in some societies, it needed long preparations.
Active resistance occurred in societies that were economically strong and capable of staging a strong resistance. This method was used by the Hehe in Tanganyika against the Germans and the Nandi against the British in Kenya.
This was a form of African reaction against colonial rule and penetration which did not involve the use of arms or violence but the colonized people simplyrefused to cooperate or to have any contacts with the colonizers.
This form of African reaction was due to natural calamities such as diseases that hindered the Africans to stage an active resistance. The Maasai for example are naturally war like people but during the establishment of colonial rule, they reacted passively because they had been weakened by Cholera.
(c) Adaptation Technique.
This was used where the African ruling class sought friendship from the colonizers so that they can get arms and new fighting techniques. It should be noted that these arms and the new fighting tactics, were used against the same colonizers who gave them the arms.
Adaptation technique was used by King Menelik of Ethiopia who sought friendship from the Italians to obtain guns, but he used the same weapons todefeat the Italians in 1895.
THE DEFEAT OF AFRICAN RESISTANCES
Most of the African societies which decided to oppose colonial rule were defeated by the Europeanpowers.
FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE DEFEAT OF AFRICAN RESISTANCES
There were various factors that contributeto the defeat of African resistances.
1. Military Weakness of the Africans.
The African societies had inferior weapons compared to the Europeans; Most of Africans were using spears and arrows and yet the Europeans were using machine guns. The possession of this powerful weapon contributed to thedefeat of resistances such as that of the Hehe against the Germans in Tanganyika and the Nandi resistance against the British in Kenya.
2. Lack of National Consciousness and Unity.
Lack of national consciousness and unity partly contributed to the defeat of Africans resistances for examples; the Germans easily defeated the Hehe in Tanganyika because the Sangu and Bena collaborated with the Germans. The British also defeated Lobengula in Zimbabwe because chief Lewanyika of the Lozi Kingdom collaboration with the British.
3. Natural Hazards.
Some African societies were defeated because of their material conditions whichmade them unable to put up a stiff resistance. These conditions were natural hazards such as diseases. The Maasai of East Africa could not put a stiff resistance because they were suffering from cholera and their cattle had beenkilled by render pest.
4. Influence of the Missionaries.
The Missionaries had a role to play in the defeat of African resistances. The Missionaries brain washed the minds of the Africans by preaching obediencewhich reduced African resistance to colonial rule. For example; the Buganda inUganda and the Fante in Nigeria never resisted colonial rule because of theteaching of the Missionaries.
5. Succession Disputes.
Succession disputes also contributed to the defeat of African resistances. Succession disputes brought about divisions which made it possible for the colonial powers to side with one group against the other in Buganda, for example, Semei Kakungulu sided with the British to defeat Mwanga.
6. Lack of Good Fighting Techniques.
Lack of good fighting techniques went hand in hand with the absence of strongleadership which was needed to stage a strong resistance. A case in point was the Majimaji resistance which lacked adequate leadership and proper fighting techniques, hence contributing to its defeat by the Germans.
TRANSITION FROM COMPETITIVE CAPITALISM TO MONOPOLY CAPITALISM
Competitive capitalism refers tothe second stage of capitalism that existed after industrial revolution in Europe in 1750, where by European nations were competing themselves in Industrial production.
This was done in terms of production of raw materials, monopolizing trade and market. Therefore under industrial capitalism there rose bitter struggle/stiff competition among European capitalists for production, whoever in the course of this stage some capitalist were died while others who were able to competegrow richer and reached to a stageof monopoly capitalism.
In order to survive the capitalist’s increased labour productivity which was done through introduction of more efficient machines hence competitive capitalism was always progressive because of time and free trade and accelerated to the rise of monopoly capitalism.
CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPETITIVE CAPITALISM The followingare some of the characteristics of competitiveCapitalism.
1. It characterized with the role of the state was minimal.
During this period the role of the state was minimal, this was because of thebelief of free trade, and this sometimeswas called “Laissez Faire Policy”.
2. Most of the enterprises were small and competitive in nature.
Hence there was no monopoly in market, area for investment, getting labor and monopoly of getting raw materials because each enterprise was competing with another to get economic motive.
3. During this period raw materials from Africa were important but not crucial.
This was because raw materials were only needed to be used in monopoly companies which had started to monopolize the market, areas for getting labor and raw materials.
4. The tariff policies (trade barriers) were still protective in nature.
This was because each nation was still protecting her home market in order to allow merchants to involve in trade at home without any competition from outside merchants.
5. Banks were not controlling production but they were only the agents of payment.
This was where by banks provided capitals, loans and credit to the merchantsto continue involve themselves in trade for development of capitalism but not thesebanks but not these bans were involved in production.
6. Competitive capitalism was characterized by the growth of industries.
This was where by industries grew specifically for producing manufactured goodswhichwere needed and sold by industrial capitalist in Europe (Britain).
FACTORS FOR TRANSITION FROM COMPETITIVE CAPITALISM TO MONOPOLY CAPITALISM
1. Emergence of Monopoly Companies.
That was able to swallow small companies. Due to emergence of big companieswith huge amount of capital, the small companies could not fit in the competition hence monopolization of the major economic activities and thedeclineof competitive capitalism.
2. Export of Capital.
During this period there emerged big companies which were exported to industries, banks, and companies. These led companies to get double profit which accelerated the rise of monopoly capitalism
3. Emergence of cut throat competition among the European countries. The stiff competition led weak companies to be swallowed by the strongest among European nations. Example Britain, Japan, France, Italy, etc. Therefore this competition resulted to the strongest to continue in monopoly stage while theweak died in the competitive capitalism.
4. The division of the world among the big Imperialist Nations.
This was done at the Berlin conference; this accelerated the colonization of Africa and big capitalist powers were able to get capitalist demands and be ableto maximize profits and establish strong monopolistic companies which led them to transform from competitive capitalism.
5. Concentration of production and Centralization of Capital.
This was another factor for transition from competitive capitalism to monopoly capitalism. Europeans concentrated in both manufacturing of goods and raw materials which led to acquisition of more capital which was invested and reinvested especially in big industries together with big monopolistic companieswhich enabled them to acquire more profit for trade circulation and for more investments in economic sectors hence transformed the form of capitalism.
6. The rise of Philosophical Ideas
This was due to high education and research and this led unit almagation of European companies as a way to maximize profit. E.g. Small industries whichwere established during monopoly capitalism under one merchant was joined together and even the capital from those companies was joined together form a big finance.
7. The Rise Of European Nationalism.
The unification of European nations example the unification of Germany and Italy and the rise of other European nationalism acted as a transition from competitiveto monopoly capitalism because the unification expanded market, labor, easy circulation of trade and the nations started to compete amongthemselvesby establishing big companies which all these led to the transition from competitive capitalism to monopoly capitalism.
8. Relate the subsequent division of the world between capitalist alliances with thedevelopment of monopoly capitalism.
THE FIRST WORLD WAR (1914 – 1918)
This was typical an Imperialistic War which was fought between the two antagonistic military Camps of Triple Alliance (Germany, Italy and Austria – Hungary) and Triple Entente (British, France and Russia).The real war beganon 4th August 1914 when the last member of Triple Entente, Britain, declared war onGermanyafter Belgium appealed for help.
The War continued to 11 November 1918 when the new Germany republicangovernment agreed to an armistice. The fighting ceased on 11 November 1918, at 11:11 am, all over Europe the guns fell silent. A war which had cost the lives of Turks (2,290,000), Russians (3,000,000), Germans (1,800,000), French (1,300,000), Austrians (1,200,000), British (950,000), Italians (460,000) and Americans (116,000) was over.
FACTORS BEHIND THE FIRST WORLD WAR
The First World War was geared by many factors behind it. But out ofimmediate factor that known worldwide, there was long back ambiguity story which made it to happen. Here below we will explore both immediate and longterm causes of the War.
LONG TERM CAUSES
These are the factors which existed before 1914 or nearby years. The factors aremainly responsible for the War to occur. The following explanation may help us to reveal the truth.
1. Imperialism (Economic Motives)
After Germany and Italy Unification in 1870‟s, the race towards Colonial acquisition in the World as the results of Imperialism begun. The need ofMarkets, Raw materials and other factors created stiff competition among Europeanpowers which culminated into the occurrence of the First World War.
Example, the problem over Morocco between France and German was due to an expansionist Policy in Europe. Two times the countries crushed (1905 and 1911) and the war were almost broke up.
2. Formation of Military Alliances.
In 1882, Italy joined the 1879 Dual Alliance of Austria – Hungary and Germany to form Triple Alliance. Also in 1907 Russia joined the then 1904 Dual Entente (Entente Cordiale) and forming Triple Entente.
The revenge ideas which mounted among allied members together withNationalism feelings, the First World War was inevitable. These military alliances played a great role in making sure that no member of either side was attacked byopposite side.
3. French Revenge Movement.
Following the lost of two Provinces of Alsace and Lorraine during the Franco – PrussianWar of 1870/1871, French dream was to make revenge to Germany.
That‟s why unsurprisingly she joined British and later Russia in forming Triple Entente which guaranteed her military power and protection from any outside attack. Also with Triple Entente she hoped to annex back her two lost provinces.
4. The Balkan Nationalism.
The disintegration of Ottoman Empire in 1878 and later the Berlin Congress of 1878, both meant the new era to Balkan States. Serbia hoped to take all Slav speaking nations under one Umbrella.
But the Berlin Congress decided otherwise, two states of Bosnia and Herzegovina were given to Austria-Hungary, the decision that caused First World War (WWI) later. This was the reason behind the assassination of Austrian CrownPrince Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophia Chetek.
AN IMMEDIATE REASON
1. Assassination of Archideke Franz Ferdinand.
On 28th June 1914, the Austrian Crown Prince Franz Ferdinand and His wife SophiaChetek were assassinated by aSerbian boy Princip Gavrilo.
The situation created war pressure when Austria-Hungary launched an ultimatum at Serbia, on 23rd July 1914, demanding among others, acceptancewithin 48 hours. The terms were framed in the hope of refusal. Some terms were:-
Serbia agreed to the first two demands, and offered to submit the third to arbitration by The Hague – Tribunal. Had she accepted the last point it would have meant almost the loss of her independence. Following the replay, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, 28th July 1914.
Within a week the whole Europe was a blaze. Britain, France and Russia had been warned by Germany not to interfere, but it did not work.
vGermanydeclared war on Russia (1st August 1914) vGermany declared war on France (3rd August 1914) vBritain declared war on Germany (4th August 1914)
Then the war was almost inevitable in the Europe system of 1914.
2. USA entered the War.
On 1st April 1917 United States of America declared war on Germany after the Germany unrestricted U-Boat campaign which launched on 1st February 1917. The U-Boat campaign with „sink at sight‟ policy managed to sunk 914 tonesof British shipping in April, unfortunately for Germany, so many US Ships were destroyed.
WHY USA ENTERED THE WAR?
ØThe Germany launching of unrestricted U-Boat campaign, 1st February 1917 which destroyed many of USA Ships and Submarines lend toBritain.
ØUSA also made big loans to the Allies which would have been lost by an Allied defeat.
ØThe famous „Zimmerman telegram‟ (the code telegram) which was sent by the German foreign Minister (Zimmerman) to the German legation in Mexico suggesting that the Mexicans should be induced by an offer of German help, to attack the USA and recover New Mexico from her. The
British intercepted the Telegram, broke the code and suggested otherwise.
EFFECTS OF THE WAR
vFormation of dictatorship regimes (Example Nazism and Fascism) in the World whichled to the occurrenceof the later Second World War.
vLed to the occurrence of the World Great Depression (Economic Slump) from 1929 to the 1930‟s.
vBritish and other European countries decelerated economically and giving a room to USA to shine.
vFormation of the World Organization (Practically European Organization) the Leagueof Nations in 1919 and became effective in 1920.
vDispossession of all German Colonies in Africa and kept under League of Nations.
vMany people were killed and others wounded.
vThere was destruction of Economic and Social infrastructures all over the World.
vThere was intensificationof exploitation in many of European Colonies. vCut down of all Colonial expenditure so as to reduce the expenses and raise income.
THE POST WAR SETTLEMENT
This was the period after the War, whereby the big nations decided to sign various treaties as the way of preventing an occurrence of the new World War. Unfortunately, other powers like France did not use these treaties as the way ofkeeping down arm chaos around the World, but she used the treat to make revenge. Some treaties signed were:-
ØThe treaty of St. German with Austria(September 1919) ØTreaty of Neuilly with Bulgaria (November 1919) ØTreaty of Trianonwith Hungary (June 1920)
ØThe Treaty of Sevres with Turkey (August 1920)
The above treaties, together with Versailles Peace Treaty in June 28 1919, meant the end of First World War (WWI) with punishment to German as a War causative.
THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES (1919)
This was one of the Peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the Stateof War between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28th June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
The other Central Powers on the German side of the World War I were dealt with in separate treaties. Although the armistice signed on 11th November 1918 ended the actual fighting, it took six months of negotiations at the Paris PeaceConference to conclude thePeace treaty.
The delegates met at Versailles, near Paris to sign the Peace treaty in the sameHall of Mirrors where the German Empire had been proclaimed forty eight yearsbefore. The three Peace makers, George Clemenceau (France), Woodrow Wilson (U.S.A) and Lloyd George (Britain), with other European Powers met to discuss thefuture of Europe in Absence of German.
When the Conference delegates first assembled in January 18th, 1919, Raymond Poincare, President of France, said to them:-
“We are here to repair the evil that it (the War) has done, and to prevent a recurrence of it. You hold in your hands the future of the World”.
Unfortunately he spoke to Men who wanted to punish Germany more than theywished to found a new World.
President Woodrow Wilson of U.S.A attended the Conference with his 14 points,the noble ideas which, if could be followed, brought peace to the World as it expected. But his Allies did not agree his points and the Fourteen Points weredisputed from the start.
WOODROW‟S FOURTEEN POINTS
1. Abolition of Secret diplomacy by Open Covenantsopenly arrived at.
2. Freedom of the Seas in Peace and War, except as the Seasmay be closed inwhole or part by international action for enforcement of international covenant.
3. Removal of international trade barriers wherever possible and established of an equality of trade conditions among the nations concerning to thePeace.
4. Reduction of armaments consistencewith public safety.
5. Adjustment of Colonial disputes consistence with the interests of both the controlling government and the Colonial population.
6. Evacuation of Russian territory.
7. Evacuation and restoration of Belgium territory.
8. Evacuation and restoration of French territory including Alsace and Lorraine.
9. Readjustment of Italians frontiers along clear recognizable line of nationality.
10. Autonomy development for the people of Austria-Hungary.
11. Restoration of Rumania, Serbia and Montenegro with access to the Sea for Serbia.
12. Autonomous development for the people of Turkey with the straits from theBlack Sea too the Mediterranean permanently opened.
13. An Independence of Poland.
14. Formation of League of Nation.
The delegates during the Conference tried to make War evaluation as a way of finding out who will make reparation to the war. During evaluation process, Germany found War guilt and had to be punished as follows:-
ØGermany had to pay war reparation of 6.5 billion pounds, to be paid in terms of money, coal, iron and other valuable minerals.
ØGerman had to lose Alsace – Lorraine to France. ØDispossession of all Germany Colonies to France and Britain.
ØGerman army had not to be exceeding 100,000 men and had to abolish conscription.
ØThe Rhineland had to be occupied by Allied army for Fifteen years. ØForgo the use of Submarines, tanks, heavy artillery and Poison gas.
Germany paid a certain amount for some years by first borrowing from U.S.A and Britain. Later, as soon as she really began to foot the bill, she found herself unable to do so, and repudiated it.
WEAKNESSES OF THE TREATY
Unfortunately, Versailles Peace Treaty created more problem than it solved. More came up and another World War broke out as aresult of its weaknesses.
vThe treaty humiliated Germany in steady of helping not to cause more problems; example she was the only one who found guilt and needed to pay 6.5 billion pounds to victorious powers.
vThe treaty remained more theoretical rather than practical. No mechanism to implement/enforce the agreements reached.
vSome countries were not satisfied with the territorial division. Italy was not givenany colony that claimed from Germany, hence Fascism arose.
vGermanywas not allowed to join League of Nations.
vThe treaty failed to ensure Peace and Security and helped small countries (3rd World Countries) to get independence, even those under the League of Nations.
Due to above weaknesses mentioned, the World witnessed the period of chaos and misunderstanding filed with desire of controlling more territories in theWorld. As a result, the World Great Economic Depression as well as Second World War hit the World and causing some countries of Europe to lose their hegemony and America came to replace them.