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THE RISE OF DICTATORSHIP IN GERMANY, ITALY AND JAPAN.


A dictatorship is defined as an autocratic form of government in which the Government is ruled by an individual, a dictator. In this government the power rests entirely on one person or group of people. A dictator is not restricted by law, constitution or other social and political factorswithin the state.


A dictatorship is a form of government characterized by the absolute rule of oneperson or a very small group of people who hold all political power. While a dictatorship is a form of government in some nations, just as monarchy or representative democracy is the form of government in others, dictatorships are seen by non-dictatorships as dangerous and cruel because of the way they tend to treat their citizens.


According to Ford, “Dictatorship is the assumption of extra-legal authority by theHead of the State.”

Alfred says, “Dictatorship is the government of one man who has not obtained his position by inheritance but either by force or by consent, and normally by a combination of both.


He must possess absolute sovereignty. All political powers must ultimately emanate from his will and it must be unlimited in scope. It must be exercised more or less frequently in an arbitrary manner by decree rather than by law. Finally, it must not be incompatible with absoluterule”.


Generally; this is a form of government in which one person or a small group possessesabsolute power without effective constitutional limitations.

The term dictatorship comes from the Latin title Dictator, which in the Roman Republic designated a temporary magistrate who was granted extraordinarypowers in order to deal with state crises.

Modern dictators, however, resemble ancient tyrants rather than ancient dictators.

Ancient philosophers’ descriptions of the tyrannies of Greece and Sicily go far toward characterizingmodern dictatorships.

Modem Dictatorships. Between 1919 and 1939 there was a great reaction against democracy and dictatorship was established in many countries of the world. In Turkey, Kamal Pasha established his dictatorship in 1921 and he remained in power till his death in 1938. Mussolini abolished democracy in Italy in1922 and became a dictator.


In Spain Primo de Rivera became dictator from 1923 to 1939. In Portugal, General Carmona remained a dictator from 1926 to 1933. In Yugoslavia, Emperor Alexander established his dictatorship in 1929 and he ran the administration without a Parliament. In 1933, Hitler established his dictatorship in Germany and heremained in power till 1944.


Lenin established the dictatorship of Communist Party in Russia after the revolution of 1917. After the Second World War, China, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Finland and Lithuania (Eastern Europe) also established the dictatorship of the Communist party but now most of thecountries have opted for democracy.


Some years ago, Military Dictatorship was established in some countries, for example Pakistan, Bangla Desh, Sudan, Nigeria, Burma, Ghana, and Indonesia and in some countries of South America, Chile, Panama, Argentina and Brazil. Now civilian rule has been restored in Argentina and Brazil, the largest countries of Latin America. Military revolutions took place in these countries and the administrationwas run by Military Dictators.


Dictators usually resort to force or fraud to gain despotic political power, which they maintain through the use of intimidation, terror, and the suppression of basic civil liberties. They may also employ techniques of mass propaganda in order to sustaintheir public support.


CHARACTERISTICS OF DICTATORSHIP


Dictatorship as an autocratic form of government has characterized with thefollowing features as follows:-


1. One Party, One Leader and One Programme.

In dictatorship only one party is allowed to exist and it is the dictator’s ownparty. Other political parties, associations and organizations are not allowed to function. These are banned. All opposition to the dictator is ruthlessly suppressed. Hitler used to say, “Swastika or Gallows”.


a) One Leader.

Under dictatorship, leadership is given to a single man. Full faith is to be concentrated in the leader. The leader is supposed to represent national unity. He is considered to be a symbol of national prestige. He is the final authority in every matter and his word is supreme.


b) One Programme.

The whole country is supposed to have one political programme and it is theprogramme of dictator’s own party.


2. Absence of Individual Liberty

The individual does not enjoy any liberty or rights under dictatorship. Maximum obedience to the laws is equated to the maximum liberty. People are not allowed anyliberty of speech, association and press.

All agencies of education and propaganda such as schools, colleges, radio, papers and films are controlled by the state. In thewords of Mussolini:-


“People do not want liberty but they want law and order.”

No criticism against thedictator is tolerated. People are supposed to believe and obey. Democratic slogans of liberty, equality and fraternity are replaced by slogans like duty, discipline and sacrifice. Mussolini asserted:-

“Liberty is a dead carcass, I kick it.”


3. National Glorification

Dictators glorify their nations to an illogical extreme. Mad sense of patriotism is inculcated in the minds of the people. They are made intensely nationalistic. The state is regarded as the march of God on earth.

The state is considered to be the end and the individual a means to that end. People are supposed to sacrifice their liveson the alter of state.


4. Glorification of War

Dictators glorify war. War is considered to be essential for the normal health of body-politic. The state is all powerful and it must enhance its prestige. The dictators adopt a war-like policy and glorify brute force as the means for achieving national greatness. In theopinion of Hitler:-

“In eternal warfare, mankind has become great; in eternal peace it will be ruined.”

To quote Mussolini:-

“War is to the man what maternity is to the woman.”


5. Totalitarian State

Dictatorship is a totalitarian state which controls each and every aspect of human personality, and takes into its fold all human activities in the social,

economic, political, educational, religious and cultural spheres. No margin for individual libertyis left behind:-

“Nothing against the state, everything for the state, nothing outside the state”

Therefore; from the above quote it reveals the basicprinciple of dictatorship.


6. Racialism

Dictators preach racialism. The Germans under Hitler regarded themselves to be superior to the people living in the rest of the world. They claimed that they belonged to the ancient Aryan stock. As such they regarded themselves to be superior to others. Similarly, the Italians claimed that they belonged to the race of the ancient


NB:-Dictatorship was a mad doctrine. World War II was the direct result of these dictatorships. Democratic camp led by United Soviet Socialist Republic(U.S.S.R), England and America uprooted dictatorship from the world and gates for the growth of democracy was again opened.


CAUSES OF THE RISE OF DICTATORSHIP

The rise of Dictatorship in the world was much contributed/influenced by the diffent and various factors as folllows:-


(1) Outbreak of the First World War.

The First World War broke out in 1914. In order to conduct the war successfully even in democratic countries, the executive captured all thepowers of the government and Parliaments were pushed aside. There was no regard for the freedom and rights of the people. As such, democracy received a severe set-back.


(2) The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 was based Upon Injustice.

The Treaty of Versailles (Paris Pact) was based on injustice. According to thistreaty, Germany was bifurcated into two parts and they were handed over to. France, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Poland and League of Nations.

Besides, a sum of £ 6,600 million was imposed as War-Indemnity on Germany. This compelled the people of Germany to think that only a strong government could bring about unification of the county and payment of reparation could be avoided. Thus, Hitler assumed power in 1933.


Though, according to the secret Treaty of London, Italy was to be given a new territory, yet after winning World War I, the governments of England and France did not fulfill that obligation. Italy suffered a heavy loss in World War I and she was very much disappointed. Pe’6ple believed that only a strong and powerful government could be effective at that stage. Thus Mussolini rose to power in 1922.


(3) Incompetence of Democratic Governments

After World War I democratic government were established in Germany and Italy. They had to face many crises from the very beginning. There was the problem of the unification t the motherland and Economic Depression in Germany.


In Germany, the Jews were traitors and they advanced money at a high rate of interest to France during the war. Communists were encouraging civil war on all sides and they were resorting to strikes. This hit the economy very badly. The democratic government of Germany could not do anything between 1920 and 1933.


At last Hitler’s Nazi Party came to power, and it was determined to root out all these evils. In Italy too democratic government was established after World War I, but this could not solve the political and economic problem? Thus Mussolini ended the democratic government with the help of his Fascist Party and solved the political and economic problems by dint of his own ability and strength.


(4) Lack of Democratic Traditions.

There was a lack of democratic traditions in Italy, Germany, Russia, Portugal and Spain. The people became restive and they transferred all their rights to dictators.


(5) Inability to secure economic liberty.

In Russia, before 1917 revolution, Czar, Nicholas II was the ruler. He failed to take effective steps for the economic prosperity of the people. At the time of October revolution the Communists promised to remove economic disparities and guaranteed livelihood to all, with the result that the Communist revolution took place in Russia and the Communist Party established its dictatorship.


After World War II, Communist revolutions took place in China, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Finland, Poland, Hungary, Rumania and Czechoslovakia, becausethe governments of these countries failed to bring prosperity to their people. At present there is dictatorship of Communist Party in these countries.


FACISM

Fascism is the attitude of giving full interest in economic, social and militarypower to a dominant race or state lead by a single dominant leader. Fascism basically rejected the idea of Socialism, Capitalism and Democracy. Fascism‟s are single – party dictatorship characterized by terrorism and Police surveillance.

It focuses in ethnicity and “our” race being better than “your” race. Once whotake awayfreedom from others can be considered as Fascist.


CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCISM


1. Totalitarianism.

The State incorporates every interest and every loyalty of its members. “There must be nothing above the State, nothing outside the State, nothing against the State”. There is therefore only one Fascist party, a Fascist press and aFascist Education.


2. Nationalism

The nation is the highest form of society ever evolved by the human race. The nation must be made strong and great, with self – sufficiency, a powerful army and a rapidly increasing population.


3. Idealism.

The philosophy of Fascism was an idealistic philosophy in the sense that it renounced the materialistic interpretation of history. Idealism developed primarily as protest against the defeatism of Italy‟s former rulers, who argued that since their country had no coal it was doomed to remain a third world power.


4. Romanticism.

Is an ideology that says reasons can never be adequate instruments for the solution of great nation problems? Intellectual needs should be supplemented by mystic faith, byworship of heroism and strength.


5. Authoritarianism.

The sovereignty of the State is absolute. The citizen has no rights but simplyduties.


6. Militarism.

Fascist States believed that angry or violent disagreements are the origin of all things, and this great power can only be achieved through military superiority.


FASCISM IN ITALY


Mussolini was started the Fascist Party in Italy. He was expelled from the Socialist party in 1915 and he then went to fight in First World War (WWI). The Fascist party was very violent and soon spread to many areas of life in Italy. Secret Police and assassination teams (also known as Black Shirts) had control of the streets. The partybelieved in only one absolute ruler and theretraction of many freedoms.


Books and Papers were censored, and education was reviewed so that it would favor the Fascist government. Benito Mussolini carried out all the essentials of Fascism – violence, dictatorship and glorification of War. The ultimatum of these ambitions was more disastrous.


BENITO MUSSOLINI


Born at Dovia in 1883, Mussolini was a violent and head strong boy, He qualified as a teacher but soon turned to journalism. Mussolini who realized that a war against Austria – Hungary could give Italy the Trentino and Trieste areas.


This desire to enlarge Italian territory led him to justify the war and even toglorify fighting. On 23rd March 1919 Mussolini formed a Fascio di Combattimento (Fighting group) in Milan.


Here were the first band of Fascist, „Superior‟ men who boasted that they werebound as closely together as the rods and axes of the „Fascinae‟ which had symbolized the power of Ancient Rome.


MUSSOLINI’S POLICYMussolini had the following ambitions:-

ØTo destroy Parliamentary government and make himself a dictator. ØTo gainrespect for Italy as a great Power.

ØHe ruthlessly punished his opponents through imprisonment, torture and exile.

ØEconomic re – organization of Italy where Mussolini did much to develop the Italian economy – agriculture,modernization of roads and railways. ØThrough his foreign policy Mussolini intervened in the Spanish Civil War

to support General Francisco Franco and he made annexation of Ethiopia (1935-1936) and Albania in 1939.


CAUSES OF FASCISM IN ITALY


1. Impacts of the First World War.

The First World War affected Italian Economy badly to the extent of destroying its prosperity. Many people were killed and social miseries were embraced people‟s life. Hence, reformation (political and economic reform) was needed to eliminate social miseries.


2. Fear of Communism.

Communism, as a social doctrine advocated by Russia, believed in communal ownership of major means of production. As it entered in Eastern Europe, many Italians refused to pay taxes. Mussolini saw that, Communism would lead Italy to the grave of Poverty, so he promised to fight Communism with all his efforts, thus people supported him.


3. The Versailles Peace Treaty of 1919.

The treaty discouraged Italy completely. She was invited by Triple Entente tofight on its side during the WWI with a promise of getting some provinces from Africa and Europe respectively. But the treaty didn‟t grant them to her, hencethe need of denouncing the treaty terms. Italy was promised the two provinces (Austrian districts) of the Trentino (The south Tyrol) and Trieste (on the Adriatic). Italy also was not given Colonies that dispossessed from Germany.


4. The Weakness of League of Nations.

One of the League‟s tasks was to check and stop any attempt of re-armamentsin European countries. But she failed to do so in Italy, as a result, the Fascism gained momentum following the Weakness shown by League of Nation.


5. The role of Mussolini.

Mussolini was a founder of Fascism in Italy and the World at large. He organized his party and rose into power through violence and promises of Italians recovery from the First World War scars.


IMPACTS OF FASCISM


i. It boosted up Industrialization in Italy by advocating cooperation between workers and other industrial owners. This helped in keeping Italian economy healthy.

ii. Fascism, due to its expansionist Policy it contributed greatly to theoccurrence of the Second World War in 1939 – 1945.

iii. She also invaded other countries in the World to cause problems in World Political System.

iv. Persecution and strong opposition to communist in Italy and other partsin the World developed from this Fascist policy of Mussolini.

v. Many people in Italy were tortured, suppressed and persecuted byMussolini for opposing Mussolini‟s policy and philosophy.


NAZISM IN GERMANY

Germany wanted back her 1914 frontiers. U.S.A was not member of League of Nations. France was very weak and Russia was torn by Civil War, and a number of Small states, only Britain remained to check for Germanydisarmament. Then opportunity came on the side of Germany, it was only forthe matter of time before they have claimed back their frontiers. In 1924 AdolphHitler wrote:-

“State boundaries are made by Man and changed by Man….. Germany will either be a World Power or there will be no Germany”


NAZISM

Nazism (Nationalisozialismus), National Socialism; alternatively spelled Nazism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany. The Nazis believed in the supremacy of an Aryan master race and claimed that Germans represented thepurest Aryan Nation.

They argued that Germany‟s survival as a modern great Nation required it to create a new order – an empire that would give the German nation the necessary land mass resources and expansion of population needed to be able to economicallyand militarily compete with other powers.

The Nazis claimed that Jews were the greatest threat to the Aryan race and the German Nation. They considered Jews a parasitic race that attached itself to various ideologies and movements to secure itself – preservation, such as: the enlightenment, liberalism, democracy, parliamentary politics, capitalism, industrialization Marxism and tradeunionism.


ADOLF HITLER

Adolf Hitler was born in April 1889 at Braunau, Austria – Hungary. He once used to earn a living through painting and selling postcards, even beating carpets and shoveling snow. In 1920, he formed National Socialist GermanWorkersParty (Nazis). The badgewas the Swastika.

Hitler always offered a simple solution. “Everything would be all right if the Jews were deprived of all money and power, or the communist crushed, or the „November Criminals‟ hanged” These ideas gave him enough followers.

On 8th November 1923, after only four years in politics, Hitler went too far with encouragement from Italian Fascist successful March on Rome; he announced „National Revolution‟ and tried to „March on Rome‟. Unfortunately, unlikeMussolini, Hitler tried two mistakes:-

ØHe had not made sure of the active support of the army.

ØHe was unknown outside Bavaria whereas Mussolini had been a national figure before his March.

On that day, he had 3,000 armed storm troopers who supported him. Suddenly, police bared the way with rifles at the ready. Altogether, sixteenNazis and three policemen were killed in this unsuccessful movement. Hitler was arrested and his party was banned.

Following the banning of Movement, Hitler was sentenced to five years in Prison, a ridiculous punishment for armed rebellion, and in fact served only nine months. In prison, Hitler wrote Mein Krapf (My Struggle), a book that later used to rule Germany.


The Great Depression of 1929 that hit Europe and Germany respectively gave Adolf Hitler a chance of climbing into political mountain. USA stopped loans of 7 billion US dollars to Germany which resulted into fall of wages and a closing of factories and businesses.

In 1929 there were 1,320,000 unemployed in Germany and in 1932 this figured had increased to 5,102,000 unemployed. Here was Hitler‟s chance as for years he had prophesized disaster.

On 1930 and 1932 Hitler won an election with enough votes although he didn‟t win the Presidency. On 30 January 1933, Field – Marshal Hindenburg appointed Hitler as a Chancellor of Germany.


HITLER’S ACTION IN POWER

While in power, Hitler promised/did the following to make him stronger. ØFrom 1933 to 1945 Hitler abolished theParliamentary government.

ØArbitrary arrest imprisonment, torture and death without trial became common.


ØRacial discrimination whereby the Nazi claimed that Germans who descended from the Aryans – where thepurest race of all.

ØConsolidation of the media especially press and radio of the Nazi. This consolidation meant to Nazify its programs output.

ØMein Kampf became the only Germany constitution.


ØThe establishment of secret state police (Gestapo), through their torture made most people to confess many things.

ØIn 1936, Hitler escaped thetreaty of Versailles and ignored its terms.

ØHis far ambition was to unify all Germanic people under one rule(Austria, Poland)


CAUSES OF NAZISM


Many things were traced as factors behind the rise of Nazism in Germany, but the following factors found to be useful:-


1. The Weakness of League of Nations.

One of the League‟s objectives was to check/stop German‟s re – armament policy. But League had no mechanism – army – of stopping Germany from expanding its army. As a result Germany violated League‟s laws and used the weaknessto expand herself.


2. The need of denouncing Versailles Peace Treaty terms.

The terms were too harsh to Germany hence Hitler promised his people to deal with all terms which humiliated Germany.


3. Fear of Communism.

Most of Western European countries feared the quick spread of Communism doctrine. The doctrine discouraged private ownership of property and extremely taxes. Many people joined Nazi which promised to suppressCommunism.


4. Impacts of the First World War (WWI).

The war left behind a number of social miseries, destruction of infrastructures and so on. German‟s supported Hitler‟s policy of recovery.

economic economic


5. The role of Adolph Hitler.

Weakness of the Weimer Republic during the First World War period gave Adolph Hitler a free chance to survive in politics. Weimer Republic was hated by many Germans because it signed the Versailles Peace Treaty terms which accused Germany as a „War guilty‟


6. The Great Economic Depression (1929 1930’s)

This was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930‟s or early1940‟s. It was the longest, most widespread, and deepest depression of the 20th Century.


The „Great Crush‟ itself, beginning with such night mare events as „Black Thursday‟ (24th October 1929) on the New York Stock Exchange, wasto a large extent a collapse of confidence. Nearly 13 million shares were hastily sold, causing during the month of October a loss of 40,000 million dollars to Americaninvestors.


CAPITALIST PRODUCTION CYCLE


BOOM STAGE

DEPRESSION CRISIS

RECOVERY

The above Capitalist Economic Cycle can be identified through the following characteristics.


1. Boom Stage (Peak)

Always during the Boom stage people enjoys the highest peak of life which summarized below:-

a) High level of investment.

b) Lowest level of unemployment. c) High income to individuals.

d) Stable price of commodities. e) Social and political stability. f) Trade expansion.


2. Recession Stage.

In this stage, the country‟s economic activities started to decrease as summarized below:-

a) Decrease in investment. b) Decrease in employment. c) Decrease in income.

d) Decrease in effective demand. e) Decrease of commodity price. f) Profitless trade.


3. Slump Stage

Here, the total economic depression is marked. Almost everything is stagnated and life went high as summarized below:-

a) Lowest level of Investment.

b) Highest level of unemployment.

c) Lowest level of income asmany investment died. d) Lowest standard of living.

e) Rise of food prices.

f) Social and political unrest.

g) Total closure of enterprises and investments. 


4. Recovery Stage.

After a long time of depression, the country (or World) started to recover and economy gained its status.

a) Investments started to increase. b) Prices started to rise.

c) Effective demand increased.

d) Employments started to increase, e.t.c.


CAUSES OF GREAT DEPRESSION. 1. Overproduction and under consumption.


In many parts of the World in 1929 there was over-production. Too much food, too much copper, too much rubber, too much silver and zinc were produced. Good harvest in the United States of America (U.S.A) left even more food on the farmer‟s hands. Unfortunately, markets for those produced goods was not enough hence declined of some enterprises


2. Fall of Financial Institutions.

The fall down of New York Stock Exchange and later London Stock Market marked the beginning of Depression in the World. Profitless trades took down the peoples hopes of investing and started to withdraw their shares. Example, from 24th October 1929 to 27th October 1929, nearly 13 million shares were hastily withdrawn and sold causing huge lose which resulted into the closing downof New York Stock exchange.


3. Effects of the First World War.

Most of the European countries were badly affected by the WWI and decided to wage a protectionism policy against any imported commodities. The result wastoo bad to United States of America (USA) as she was depended to external markets for her commodities. Many of manufactured goods remained unsold and depression knocked the door.


4. Unequal distribution of Wealth and Income.

Overall distribution of wealth and income in United States of America (USA) before Great Depression was not equal. Only few people owned huge part of national wealth which caused under consumption and collapse of investors during the crisis.


5. Bolshevik Revolution of 1917.

Before Revolution, most of Europeans and American nations enjoyed Russia‟s markets for their manufactured goods. After Revolution Russia introduced central controlled economy which narrowed the World markets and causing concentration of goods to some countries that lead to Great depression.


6. Protectionism policy in European countries.

After the First World War (WWI), most of the European countries adopted the protectionism policy in order to strengthen their local markets. The policy affected U.S.A as she was dependant for internal markets. Fall of External markets for U.S.A was a great cause for its (U.S.A) collapse hence the World Great Depression was inevitable.


GENERAL IMPACTS OF GREAT DEPRESSION


1. Mass unemployment.

By 1932, more than twelve million men and women were out of work in U.S.A only. In other parts of the World, the situation was more difficult as chaos spread all over the World due to unemployment problems.


2. Reduction of Wages.

For thosewho had a grace of remaining in jobs, faced another problem of salary and wages reduction. In order for some industries to survive, the abovemeasures had to be taken.


3. Closing down of Financial Institution.

Many banks and other financial institutions were closed following the effects of Great Depression. More than 1000 Banks were closed by 1932.


4. Fall of Industrial Production.

Due to the closing down of many industries in America and Europe, theindustries production also went down to accept the situation. Most of the manufactured goods were priceless hence profitlessto many investors.


5. Rise of Dictatorship States.

As a reaction to Great Economic Depression, Dictatorship states like Nazism and Fascism came up to re-build the economics of their countries which was badly affected by depression.


6. United States of America (USA) commodities lost Markets. Protectionism policy adopted by European countries after the WWI affected greatly U.S.A. U.S.A for a long time of war enjoyed external markets and depended on it. The protectionism policy made U.S.A to lose external markets and affected her economy.


EFFECTS OF NAZISM


1. Increase of Germany Expansionist policy.

Adolph Hitler always advocated the expansionist policy – she decided to invadeother European nations e.g. Czechoslovakia, Montenegro and Poland.


2. Speed Development in Germany.

Nazi Party led Germany to the Great Development that never seen before.


3. Persecution of Jews.

Many Jews were persecuted as a result of the First World War effects. Hitler, through his downfall of German during the First World War (WWI). Nazi Partykilled many Jews who were an obstacle toward Germany achievement.


4. Massive Production of Deadly Weapons.

In 1935, Britain signed an agreement of allowing the German navy to be increased. That was a great mistake and a great chance to Hitler as he used it out of the World expectations.


5. Outbreak of the Second World War.

On 1st September 1939, German tanks rolled across the Polish border. For the first time there were no empty protests, or request for interviews.


THE SECOND WORLD WAR (1939 1945)

This was a global military conflict lasting from 1st September 1939 to 2nd September 1945, which involved most of the World‟s nations, including all of the great powers; eventually forming two opposing military alliances, the Allies and Axis powers.


The war marked by significant events involving the mass death of civilians, including the Holocaust and the only use of Nuclear weapons in warfare, it was thedeadliest conflict in human history, resulting in 50 – 70 million fatalities.


The war is generally accepted to have begun on 1st September 1939, with theinvasion of Poland by Germany and Slovakia, and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and most of the countries of the British Empire and Commonwealth.


The war in Europe ended with the capture of Berlin by Soviet and Polish troops and the subsequent German unconditional surrender on 8th May 1945. The Japanese Navy was defeated by the United States and invasion of the Japanese Archipelago (Home Island) became imminent.

The War in Asia ended on 15th August 1945 when Japan agreed to surrender. In general, the war ended with the total victory of the Allies over German and Japan in 1945.


CAUSES OF SECOND WORLD WAR


1. Failure of the Disarmament Policy.

During the Versailles Peace Treaty of 1919, the World has agreed over disarmament to the lowest point as a way of avoiding another World War. Unfortunately League of Nation had no such power of stopping stubborn countries like Germany and Italy to continue with armament. The results were turning the World up – side down.


2. Hitler’s aggressive policies.

The problem was noticed when Hitler withdraw Germany from the League of Nation in 1933 and started to denounce the Versailles terms. She then wanted to reacquire Austria – Hungary (1938) and annexing Poland and Czech in 1939.


3. Weaknesses of Versailles Peace Treaty.

Versailles Peace Treaty was used as a tool of punishing some European countries. Germany was severely punished and Italy was not given the areas she was promised. As a result of these humiliation was an outbreak of the Second World War.


4. Existence of Military Alliances.

The Versailles congress did not solve the root cause of the First World War (WWI), military camps in Europe. Triple Alliance and Triple Entente were not wiped out rather given more power with different names such as Axis Powers and Allied (Central) Power. The military Alliances played a great role inoccurrence of the Second World War.


5. Rise of Fascist Policies.

Fascism and Nazism were like a salt in the wound of World Democracy. Theytreated World Peace with their aggressive policies. They always wanted to expand their tentacles beyond their territories. Their policies led to the invasion of Poland and created tension which culminated into the Second World War.


6. The Spanish Civil War (War Rehearsal)

When Giuseppe Fanelli, an Italian politician introduced Anarchism in Spain in 1868, no one noticed its effects – but „Latifundia‟ gave anarchism the reason to spread all over Spain. Example, by 19th C in Seville, 5% of inhabitants owned 72% of the farming land, left majority of Seville empty handed.


The weakness gave General Francisco Franco the power of spreading Fascist policies in Spain, with backup of Hitler and Mussolini. Stalin supported Republicans in fear of Fascism; as a result by 1936 Spain was divided in twoparts. Nationalist that was led by Franco and Republicans which was supported by Stalin and Britain with her allies. By the end, war costing600,000 lives and ruining large parts of Spain. Yet Spain had reflection of things to come.


EFFECTS OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR.

1. Collapse of European hegemony.

After the Second World War, European hegemony started to collapse down asmuch money was used to finance the War. Britain was a leading Superpower before WWII but after the War her superiority started to fade away.


2. Massive destruction of Economic infrastructure.

Many industries, Banks, Markets, Warehouses, Roads, Bridges, Railways and many more were badly affected by the War. Due to these effects, European Economy could not stand against thefatal.


3. Collapse of League of Nations.

One of the objectives for the establishment of League of Nations in 1919, was to make sure that there was no an occurrence of another World War. Outbreak of WWII meant the total failure of LeagueMissions.


4. Jews Genocide and Torture.

Hitler always believed that “Germany was not defeated, she was betrayed”. For that belief, when he got power, Hitler killed about 6 million Jews in gas chamber and left others wounded.


5. Formation of United Nation Organizations.

Failure of League of Nations meant creation of another World organization that managed World affairs. U.N.O was formed to develop what had initiated by Leagueof Nations and it inherited some Leagues organs.


6. Rise of African Nationalism.

For Africa, Second World War was like an opportunity from heaven. Failure ofWestern block to lead the World Economy signalized their failure of handling African colonies. Most of decolonization struggle started after the Second World War to 1994 when South Africa became free.


7. Many people were killed.

Second World War used a massive killing weapon that costs lives of Soldiers and Civilians. Millions of soldiers and civilians were killed during the war.


8. Intensive exploitation of African resources.

Both human and natural resources were highly exploited after the Second World War African continent became victim of her own wealth; European used Africato compensate the effects of theWar.


9. Changes in colonial agriculture (in Africa)

In order to get enough raw materials from newly European industries, changes had to occur in Africa. More schemes and plans in agriculture were initiated tofacilitate the smooth recoveryof European economy.


DICTATORSHIP IN JAPAN

After the First World War, Japan enjoyed a period of economic prosperity and growing democratic governments. However, the Great Depression hit Japan because its economy depended on external trades. Like other governments in the World, Japan also seemed unable to solve its economic crisis. Many peopleturned to the military, which began to take matters into its own hands. By1932, military leaders had set up a military dictatorship in Japan.


The leaders like Emperor Hiroito, General Hideki Tojo (Prime Minister), Prince Konoye and many more came up to lead the militarism state in Japan. In September 1931, Japan invaded and occupies Manchuria (China province). The situation was pre-advancement of Fascism in Japan.

Unlike Italy and Germany, however, Japan did not have a strong leader (single strong leader). Instead, a small group of military leaders dominated the government. By 1930‟s, Japan had many features of a totalitarian state. The government arrested critics, imposed censorship and employed a secret policeforce to hunt down and punish the so – called enemies of the State. Extreme nationalists glorified war and Empire. Japan invaded Manchuria due to the highly demand of raw materials such as Coal and Iron.


FACTORS BEHIND DICTATORSHIP IN JAPAN


1. The World Economic Crisis.

Japan was one of the countries affected by World Great Depression (W.G.D.) she wanted to adopt policy that could help her to get rid of crisis effects. Fascism policy was a perfect choicefor her.


2. Weakness of League of Nations.

When Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931, China appealed to League of Nationsbut nothing serious was done. This gave Japan a chance of doing whatever in her mind, hence disruption of World Peace.


3. Rise of Fascism and Nazism.

The success of Fascism and Nazism had great impacts on the dictatorship system in Japan. Japan also wanted to create a strong nation like that of Italy and Japan.


4. Corruption.

By the end of 1880‟s and early 1900”s, corruption in Japan became the onlyway of acquiring services. Great people were favored while civilians left out from the system. Diet (the lower house) was not listened; hence, dictatorship could not be avoided.


5. Opposition of democracy.

Like in Germany, Japan also believed that democracy could not solve any problem. Many political groups in Japan hated democracy and believed indictatorship system of using army in solving countries problems.


IMPACTS OF NAZISM AND FACISM (DICTATORSHIP) IN EUROPE


1. Loss of Democracy.

Civilian‟s freedom was handled to dictators. Most basic freedom was no longer practiced in Japan. People started to demand their freedom again. No free constitution allowed ruling Japan.


2. Assassination of opponents.

In any dictatorship state, violence was normal situation too be observed. Example in May 1932 Prime Minister Inukai was assassinated by the group of army officers as he criticized extremist actions.


3. Disturbing the World peace.

In 1931 Japan invaded Manchuria and started to create fear among Asian states. China seeks assistance from League of Nations but not succeeded, as a result hostility was created between the two.


4. Collapse of the League of Nations.

The policies of Hitler and Mussolini contributed greatly to the collapse of the League of Nations. The two leaders ignored the resolutions of the league, Italy attacked Ethiopia in 1935, and Germany attacked Austria in 1934 and Poland in 1939. The actions of Hitler and Mussolini weakened the League of Nations and accounted for the eventual collapsein 1945.


5. Influenced the Second World War.

Japan joined Italy and Germany to createthe Axis Powerswhich threatened the World peace through their aggressiveness, Germany invaded Poland to cause the outbreak of Second World War.


6. Blocked the spread of Communism.

Germany, Italy and Japan formed relationship that stopped the spread of communism propaganda in the World and Japan respectively.


7. Rise of Dictators on the European continent.

The political systems of Nazism and Fascism contributed to the rise of dictators on the Europe continent. The governments of Germany and Italy were characterized with the absence of democracy.

The press was under state control, political meetings and associations were prohibited. There was no freedom of speech.


8. Weakened the Economies of Europe.

Nazism contributed to the decline of the economy of Germany and other European nations. Nazism contributed to the outbreak of the Second World War that contributed to widespread insecurity that disrupted economic activities.

The European powers also invested many resources in the war, which contributed to their decline as world powers.


9. Terror and Violence.

The policies of Nazism and Fascism brought terror and violence in Europe. Nazism was associated with racial segregation. The Germans believed that their race was the most superior race, they argued that the Jews were contaminating their race hence there is a need to eliminate them.

Hitler killed many Jews in concentration camps; it is believed that six million Jews direct died in Nazi hands.


10. Abolition of Free Market Economy.

The policies of Hitler and Mussolini contributed to the abolition of the freemarket policy in Germany and Italy.

The state controlled the economy through price controls and quotas. There was also creation of massive public work as a strategy to address the unemployment problem.


11. Rise of Zionism.

The actions of Hitler to kill many Jews in concentration camps led to theformation of Zionist movement, this movement aimed at uniting all the Jews and settles them in Palestine.

This movement started in the late 19th century and reached its peak in 1948 after Hitler’s Holocaust. This led to the establishment of the state of Israel. The movements name is derived from Zion, the will on which the temple of Jerusalem was located.


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