THE RISE OF SOCIALISM
Socialism refers the fifth mode of production proposed by Karl-max, 1818 – 1883 where by all major means of production like Land, bank, industries etc. are public owned and there should not be Exploitation between man and man and the highest stage of socialism is called Communism.
Therefore socialism began in Europe after the industrial development led to therise of the two antagonistic social users which where the proletariat (workers) and the capitalist or factoryowners.
Especially after the industrial new there were intensive exploitation of workers led workers to form their union /working trade union to demand for their rightsfor example, Britain there was the rise of Chartism and Laddish, and in France the inspiration of socialism was brought by the French new of 1989 which advocated for liberty, equality and fraternity to all, hence socialism was practiced in every part of the world , such as in Europe, Asia and Africa and it was most successful in Russia and other parts of eastern Europe, China, Northern Korea, Cuba and Africa.
AIMS / GOALS / OBJECTIVE OF SOCIALISM
1. Fulfilling its aim by placing all major meansof production in the hands of thepeople directly or through government ownership.
2. Making resource available i.e. Oil, natural resources like minerals etc to be used according to the needs of thepeople.
3. Replacing capitalism with socialism where capitalism was seen as an evil of mode of production in the society which used to make society not to enjoy intheir life.
4. To create a strong workers party; this will control the government onbehalf of all people in the society.
5. Eliminating exploitation of man by man, humiliation, segregation, oppression in the society.
Utopia, this means somewhere, no where land imaginary which individual think of doing but it is not; therefore Utopia is like Smith imaginary wherethings should be obtained imaginary and not practically while Utopia socialism thought.
Refers to early ideas of socialism that developed in Europe particularly in Britain and France Motivated mainly by the problem of industrial classresulted from industrial revolution of the first phase, the pro pounders /founders of autopian socialism thought were people like count Henry de Saint Simon, Charter Fomlio Robert Owen, Louis Blano, Thomas more and Tomes comparative.
THE MAIN IDEAS OF THESE SOCIALIST THINKERS
1. Count Henry De Seint Simon (1760 -1825).
He advocated the state ownership of pond process and distribution of goods and the state should pay according to one attribute that is paying base on experience skills and professional.
2. Charles Fourier (1772 -1837).
He proposed the re-organization of the society into a democratic self governing unit of about four hundred families which should be self sufficient economically and that distribution of the profit must be done in liberal minimum that is theprofit must be given to each in definite proportion to the community depending onlabour, talent and capital.
3. Robert Owen (1771 – 1838).
He advocated the re-organization of the society in a group of about 500 – 3000 people; these society should own and use in common all major means of production for the well being of all members of the community or group and such community should be agricultural society and also carry out other occupation so as to render it near self sufficient.
4. Louis Blanc.
He proposed that the state should be reconstructed or re-organized on a democratic base, should supply working men with instruments of labour and every individual had a natural right to work for his own benefits but he cannot find employment on just terms at the hand of private individuals rather the state should were to its help that is the state is responsible to find a job for his people and replace or eliminate the private individuals/ capitalist; so if the state eliminate the private individual there should not be competition among workers.
5. Thomas More (1478 – 1535).
He was English states man and philosopher who saw capitalism as an exploitative system.
He concluded that equality and happiness was not possible for women under capitalism he also advanced the ideas that the private ownership of the major means of production should be abolished and the society should be reorganized of collective ownership of means of production and collectivelabour.
6. Thomas Companella (1568 – 1639).
He named his imaginary society as “the city of the son”; where in this society there should be no exploitation of man by man, people should not be slaves but the owners of capital, and social progress would be base on science and the rules of suchsociety and to be scientist too.
NOTE:-Utopian socialism was a view which opposed class struggle and revolutionary means because they believed that negotiations between the capitalist and workers would be the solutions for the capitalist to change theway of exploitation to workers and be afriendly mode of production to workers.
CONTRIBUTION OF UTOPIAN SOCIALISM TO THE RISE OF SOCIALISM
1. They Criticized Capitalism
This was by showing that capitalism was not a good mode of production because is too exploitative workers and majority who do not own means of production. The Utopianist argued workers to re–organize to the mode which will fit to their life.
2. They proposed on a move of Human Economic Set Up.
The Utopians wanted reorganization of the society and mostly liked a society characterized by collection.
3. Utopians expressed the features of ideal society for the good future of the society.
This was in which such ideal society must not be ex-send by exploitation of manby man, oppression, humiliation, segregation and should maintain natural rights.
4. They consciousitised and awake and the society to protest against capitalism.
This was because capitalism is a bad mode of period which cannot feet in the society due to its evils like humiliation, exploitation and segregation.
5. They lay a foundation to the rise of scientific socialism.
This was which come into existence after it had learned the failure of utopian socialism for example, the failure to use class struggle and revolutionary meansto overthrow capitalism.
CONTRIBUTION OF UTOPIAN TO THE RISE OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM
1. Utopianist concerned the evils of capitalism such as exploitation, humiliation, oppression and segregation
That why exposed its weakness to the society that; capitalism isthe bad system and it should be fought in the society by all people in order to end its evilslike exploitation, humiliation, oppression and segregation.
2. Utopianist led to a foundation for the beginning of scientific socialism.
This was where by Utopianist provided the over for scientific socialism especially the idea of Utopian thinkers which was re-organization of a society so once scientific socialism come in it based on such theories.
3. Utopianist socialism created awareness and consciousness among the workers of the world.
This was by guiding and directing them to the directions to be done in order tofight capitalism in the future for example, workers were consciotized to unitetogether and fight together for their common enemy until they win because workers have nothing to lose except to gain.
4. Utopianist provided some ideologies like command economy.
This was where by the state should control the economy and organize the economy but also state should be able to organize the formation of organization to the ideal society, hence scientific socialism come to existence because on those ideologies like the state should be the one that controlled the economy on behalf of the people.
5. Utopianist provided a lesson to the capitalist to get prepared in the future of exploitation of workers would continue.
This was because worker would not tolerate with such exploitation rather they have to protest such exploitation and if possible to over throw the system hence scientific socialism come to base on such lesson provided by Utopianist.
6. Utopian duped a theory of scientific socialism out of an experience of utopian thinking.
Hence socialism become scientific socialism when the two variables were adopted in its value that is this were directs and historical materialism.
7. Utopian socialism feared bloodshed.
That is why they depended on moral persuasion to being about socialism because they feared war as the only alternative way to remove capitalism system in the society.
8. Utopian were too Theoretical and Idealistic.
This was because without any clear means to achieve and implement theideology and theories.
9. Utopian Lacked Mass Support from the Mass
This was because they occurred during the premature workers period of the early phase of industrial revolution which most workers were still illiterates /ignorant to know and fight for their rights e.g. during Luddism where majorityof workers were ignorant.
SOURCES OF UTOPIAN SOCIALISM
The source of Utopian socialism was due to industrial and its effects during the development of capitalism in Europe as follows:-
1. Poor Conditions of the Facing System.
There were long working hours, Absence of model service, low wages, poor transport, child labor etc.
2. Poor working conditions and living conditions problem.
People lived in congested house with poor ventilation, sleeping on the Float a socialist theory of Michael Hegel aGermany philosopher.
THE FAILURE / WEAKNESS OF UTOPIAN SOCIALISM
Utopian socialism had pointed out many problem social, economic, and political problems which faced the society but had one solutions or answers to those problems faced a society could be achieved through so utopian socialism failed to achieve their goals which they aimed as discussed below.
1. The use of wrong method of reforming the system.
This was because Utopianist prefer the use of discussion , morality ,negotiation or persuasions so it could be practically impossible to achieve socialism by using negotiations because capitalism is based on exploitation, limitationoppression and segregation and it could not totally to be removed or formed by using wrong method or reformed by using wrong method unless through class struggle and revolutionary likewise Utopian socialist hated class struggle and evolutional means as one of the way to achieve socialism.
2. Utopian socialist had a false way of hoping the attain / achieve better society.
This was by relying on the good will of the rich or capitalism to change the life of poor people in the society and sometimes on the lavender but also they were faced with problem of famine and hunger whileliving in acute poverty.
3. Advancement is science and technologies which removed many workers from their employment during the industrial revolution.
Many workers went on losing their jobs and the chances of getting bank their employment were limited.
4. Mass Dispossession.
Majority of people were deprived from owning the major means of period and they were made as laborers for industrial owners.
OBJECTIVES / AIMS / OF A UTOPIAN SOCIALIST
Utopian socialist addressed themselves to the problems which were created by industrial revolution therefore the general objectives were to reform the capitalist system and make it possible to the needs of poor people in the society as elaborated below:
1. It aimed at elimination of private property which insists/instigate on exploitation, oppressionand segregation to the majority in the society.
2. It aimed at creation of society under which exploitation and oppressiondo not exist but people in such society will live in harmonious life.
3. It aimed at provision of social welfare to the people especially the poor people. This can be verified when the utopians wanted the owners of the capital to care for the poor people by providing them with social welfare such as free milled , free, settlement, free medicine, free education etc.
In short the major aim of a utopian socialism was to reform the capitalist by eliminating all evils created in the society by capitalism & make people in the society living in harmonious life where by life which are full of happiness, equality etc.
This was advocated by Karl Marx (1818 – 1883) and his friend Fredrick Angles who was born in (1820 – 1895) who was aimed at destructing capitalism and establishing a dictatorship state of workers (proletarians) hence scientific socialism was the one which put socialism into practicein the world as the case study wasin Russia after the Russian revolution of October, 1917.
Scientific socialism contained scientific principles of building socialism and philosophical basis of the class struggle and revolution for example act (means). These founders of scientific socialism believed that socialism can be attained through class struggle and revolutionary means so there should be the strugglebetween the workers and the capitalist in which workers should struggle to take control of the state and the major means of production while the capitalist wanted to remain dominant.
Ultimately there should be the revolution by workers (proletariats) to take control of the state and major means of production, so Karl Marx, Fredrick Engels and Later Vladimir Lenin succeeded to make a revolution and build socialism in Russia in October, 1917 after the Bolshevik revolution. Following the Bolshevik revolution in Russia October, 1917 Socialism came into reality/existence through class struggle and revolution action in which the capitalist was overthrown in Russia.
Max and Angels wanted workers to make revolution and establish dictatorship state of workers in which worker could seize or get political power and establish socialism but later socialism should transform to its highest stage of communism, hence Max, Angels, Lenin and other socialist theorists saw
socialism as a traditional stage so they wanted a society to establish communism in which a society would be classless, state less and would be noprivateownership of the major means of production.
Society under communion would be provided with all needs and each individual will contribute according to his talent or ability.
Also under communism there should be ideal society whereby would be no exploitation of man by man, labor power of workers would stop to be a commodity because workers will be working for themselves and for their society as awhole.
The private property under socialism after proletariat revolution must be nationalized by the state controlled by workers and the major means of production such as banks, miner, transport and communication, industries and plantations must be under the control of workers through state super vision.
Large scale of import – export should be also under the public control in a society for the benefit of all people especially poor people in the society, under socialism after scientific socialism, property must be divided into two that was personal property and public property in which the public property must include all nationalized properties from the capitalist like banks, factories etc while the other personal property must product and labour intended for personal consumption.
KARL MAX MAJOR IDEAS
In his analysis Max observed the followings:
(i) Exploitation of man bymanwas a feature of capitalism.
(ii) It could not be possible to persuade the capitalist to stop its evils like exploitation, humiliation, oppression and segregation.
(iii) What was to be done to put an end of capitalism in which the major means of production was to be putunder the control of workers fortheir benefits and was only through class struggle and revolutionary actions.
History has been a process of change through class struggle, so workers and other people in a society should struggle to end the system of capitalism and write a new history in a society.
(iv) Capitalist are to be over threw by the exploited class who are oppressed, humiliated and exploited, in order to establish socialism.
(v) All wealth and property in the society is created by labor of theworking class who in capitalism own neither factory nor tools of production, hence workers should write together to own and control wealth and property created by labor power.
(vi) The personal greatly and selfishness at the peoplemust bereplaced by religion and other ideasof ideal society.
(vii) Workers own only their labor power which they do sell to the capitalist as a commodity so they live only by working to the capitalism hence they must unit together to fight capitalism and eliminate all like bank industries etc in order for workers to enjoy for their life.
Max argued that capitalism was creating condition to socialism to exist because of the evils of capitalism in the society and also argued that once all capitalist class had been broken and overthrown then no longer any exploitative class in society rather socialism would have reduced in climax (peak) and dictatorshipof proletariat would not be necessary in the society rather socialism had to transform to its highest stage known as communism in which the following
CHARACTERISTICS, FEATURES OR ELEMENTS SHOULD BE OBSERVED
(i) Productionis at the highest stage and according to his needs. (ii) Classless society would come to existence.
(iii)Manual and intellectual labor would have no difference.
(iv)The difference between town and country (rural) would be eliminated.(v) All other qualities produced by capitalism would be eliminated. (vi)There must be high science and technology in society.
(vii) There would be no law, police, prison or army because under communalism there is no need of having state and instruments of force.
MARX AND PROLETARIATES (WORKING CLASS)
Socialism has propounded by Karl Max become attractive to working class more than other socialist in the world, hence the following were the suggestions of Max to the workers:-
(i) Max organized the first group of socialist from different countries which was known as International working class of the socialist formed on 1864 in London.
(ii) Max manifests become wide spread as the socialist document in the world, calling all workers of the world to unite together and fight capitalism with its evils until they win because labor (chains).
(iii)From 1848 there were a lot of revolutions in the world including France, China etc. where by the workers were demanding for their rights15 years after the end of the first international, 2nd international workers must was found under Fredrick Engels because Max hasdied.
In 1893 the 2nd international workers must wasput into practice in Switzerland which was attended by socialist must of different countries who represented their countries for example, in Russia there was the social democratic party which was under V.I Lenin. Later on V.I Lenin carried out the first socialist revolution in Russia.
Generally Max interpretation of history indicated that socialist revolution could take place first in the most highly development countries like Britain and France however this did not happen due to many reasons
(i) Improvement of workingcondition of workers. (ii) Introduction of collective bargaining. (iii)Introduction of Westerndemocracy etc.
With those factors the first socialism occurred in Russian in Oct. 1917 after theBolshevik revolution.
THE THEORY OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM
This was written as scientific socialism when the communist manifest was published by KarlMax and Fredrick Engels. The philosophical bases of scientific socialism is class struggle and revolutionary action as the most effective way of building socialism, according to Max and Engels in the absence of class struggle and revolutionary action if is impossible to build scientific socialism.
From the analysis of Karl Max (1883 -1818) and Engels (1820 -1895) the following were observed;
(i) Destruction of capitalism can only be achieved by revolutionary actions and class struggle since exploitative class that was capitalist would not voluntarily surrender.
(ii) The working class is the only revolutionary force capable of overthrowing capitalism because workers has the majority in the society but there the one who are exploited, humiliated, oppressed and own nothing except their labor power until they win.
(iii)The working class will have to form a common front with its alliance with peasant and other progressive social groups must join together to over throw capitalism.
(iv)Overthrown of capitalist state will be replaced by dictatorship of the proletariat which must defend and protect theinterest of masses.
(v) The government of workers must ensure the followings:-
(a) The major means of period and distribution of wealth and propertyare put in hands of workers and peasants.
(b) Labor is no longer treated as a commodity.
(c) The economic structure must dissolve the contradictions in the society because the socialist government of workers must plan the economyfor all people in the society.
THE ORIGIN /GENESIS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM
1. Contribution of Germany Ideology of dialectics.
This Ideology was put forward philosopher known as Michael Hegel whereby Hegel with his Ideology of dialect insisted on changes in the society is inevitable and always this changes arise out of contradictions, Hegel used three conceptsto verify the theory of dialects which are thesis –Antithesis thesis from the German Ideology Max borrowed.
The concept of dialects - and used them to develop the concept of Historicaland direction materialism which is called correct outlook of the world, the concept of historical materialism stated that matter is in a constant motion or change and people should understand the laws governing nature.
Max Later concluded that the change from capitalism to socialism was inevitable even by revolution because the society as a matter keeps on a constant change.
2. Contribution of French revolution of 1789 in building socialism.
The French revolution which advocated for equality force for the rise of scientific socialism, this was because after French had made a revolution it managed to establish French socialism which stay for start time of only 72 days but it collapsed so Karl max fear its weaknesses involved in French socialism that the French socialism after the revolution of 1789 failed because it was led by idealistic way of thinkingand not scientific approach.
From this weakness Max disposed a scientific theory of building socialism which insisted workers to struggle not make revolution/ in order to remove the capitalist more scientifically and not by emotion or immorality.
3. Contribution of Utopian socialism.
This intended to build socialism through moral approach / discussion / persuasion to the capitalist. Karl Max criticized their wrong way/ approach that it was practically impossible to ask the exploiters to stop exploitation and oppression since they were the one who benefited of the capitalist system and usually capitalism operated through exploitation from this weakness Karl Max and Engels depend the method of class struggle and revolutionary action as the scientificway of building socialism in theworld.
4. The contribution of the English political economist.
The contribution of the English political economic from the English political economist Karl Max criticized them because of their weakness and because they were emphasizing capitalism in the society, there were like Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Robert Malthus because their theory justified capitalist exploitationin the society.
(a) Adam Smith.
In his book of the “wealth of the nations” published in 1776 said that all business and economic activities are regulated by the natural Laws which are the Law of supply and demand & the Law of competition that is in any businessprice will be fixed by the supply and demand.
So Smith argued that every man should be free to do what he thought to be the best for himself e.g. to involve in businessor to involve in capitalism
He was an Anglican clergyman who become a professor of economics in his book titled as “An essay on the principle of population” published in 1798 hewrote that the greatest obstacle to human progress was the increase of population, therefore he argued that population was increasing geometrically while production and food supply was increasing arithmetically for example, Population Production and food supply.
Then he comes out with the possible solutions to theproblems:-ØHe advocated wars.
ØFamine and hunger.
ØDiseases especially epidemicdiseases etc. All these aimed to reduce population size.
(c) David Ricardo.
He advocated the theory of comparative advantages where in his book titled as “principle of political economy and taxation” of 1870 he recommended that eachregion as to dwell/continue on producing what is suitable for each region i.e. Agrarian societies should remain agrarian and industrial societies should remain industrial.
Therefore Karl Max come out with the theory of scientific which aspired for building a socialist state under exploitation of man by man, oppression, and segregationof people in a society should not exist.
5. The contribution of Karl max and Fredrick Engels.
These thinkers were the initiatives of scientific socialism who advocated their time to write and expand the idea of building socialism through the principle of scientific socialism hence the ideas of Max and Engels were taken and put into practice by people who aimed and volunteered to build socialism in the world history for example Lenin, who built socialism in Russia after the Bolshevik revolution of October, 1917.
PRINCIPLES OF BUILDING SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM
According to Karl Marx, construction of scientific socialism must be led by scientific principles these are economic base, mode of production, class conflict and class struggle, revolution strategy, agent of revolution.
1. Economic Base
The contribution of scientific socialism depended on economic base of particularly society according to Max if the economic is weak do not dream to build scientific socialism but if the economic base of a particular society is strong the scientific socialism will be constructed base in a society were economy, therefore the poor struggle to achieve better economic situation but if the economic base is weak no struggle of the society.
2. Mode of Production.
This is one of the determinant factor for building scientific socialism becausemode of production determines human nature at a particular stage & conflict tend to exist in such mode of production for example in capitalism exploitation, humiliation and segregation are very high this led to antagonistic class struggle between the capitalists and the workers so the class conflict in capitalism become sharper and sharp created a conducive environment for socialism revolution.
Max concluded that scientific socialism is possible to be launched successful under capitalism because of its evils in the society.
3. Class Conflict and Class Struggle.
According to Max the production process determined the existence of class and class conflict which these two led to the rise of class struggle in the society and according to him the class difference and conflict is the result of economicfactor or reasons therefore the class conflict.
Class struggle and class are related to the questionslike who produce what and who has got what. This resulted to scientific socialism in order to end the class conflict and class struggle which the result of capitalism and its evils in the society.
4. Revolution Strategy.
By revolution we means the total overthrow of the ruling class from power and those who were rolled by that ruling class, so Max wanted workers to have a clear strategylike what time should the revolution take place and where to start the revolutionand who should take power after the revolution.
5. Agents of the Revolution.
According to Max scientific socialism must be led by most exploited and oppressed people who are the proletariat class because this class is the once which feels the pains of the capitalist like humiliations, segregation, oppression and exploitation. This class where they get tired of capitalism they must decide to overthrow the capitalism and thus why for Max the exploited class is the correct agent for the socialist revolution.
SOCIALISM IN PRACTICE
RUSSIAN REVOLUTION IN OCT. 1917
A revolution is a political term which can be defines as the total over throw of the existing government by those who were previously subjected to it. The Russia socialist revolution took place in 26th October, 1917 under the Bolsheviks. This revolution however preceded by another revolution which took place in February 1917 but this was not successful likethe Bolsheviks’ because of its weakness in the society/ to the Russians but both of these revolution come into existence because of the problems faced Russians before and during1917.
THE RUSSIAN SOCIETY BEFORE AND DURING 1917
This were the majority in Russia who used primitive method of cultivation like hand hoe without any mechanization in agriculture like the use of tractors, no use of machines for planting and harvesting;
(i) The economy of the peasant was very Low because of the use of primitive
methods of cultivation.
(ii) At the beginning of the 19th Russian agriculture was still low in comparisonwith other western European countries.
(iii)Land distribution was unfair because a large number of acres of land which belongs to the millions of peasants were taken by the ruling class and given to the few LandLords who were about 30,000 hence there were serious Land shortage among the peasants which led them to support theOctober, 1917 revolution in Russia.
2. The Proletariat
(i) This was a very small number of people in the 20th C.
(ii) This group of workers was concentrated in very few areas especiallyin towns.
(iii)They had very Low standard of Living becausethey earn a little. (iv)Workers had to supplement their wages with cultivation of small
plots in the country side but also the cultivation was done byprimitive way (hand hoe) hence they supported a revolutionseriously in order to get out all theseproblems.
3. The big Land Lords (Land Lords)
This group comprised of the rural capitalist who own rural farms and most of the peasant had to work in their forms for their benefits and this group was small in number in Russian society.
4. The capitalist class / Bourgeoisie class.
This class was weak and small which operated its economic activity by usingforeign capital because Russia by that time were very much behind of the western industrial stage of capitalism so their influence to the ruling class was negligible.
5. The Russian Orthodox Church.
This comprises the bishops and upper clergy this Orthodox Church (class) had cooperated withthe ruling class in Russia to oppress thenormal Russians.
6. The Administrators.
This class composed of the Tsa (csar) or the King and the nobility, in this class the parliament (DUMA) had unlimited power because it based only on restricted electorate and its role was to make Laws and order only while all the powers of implementingthose powers were given to the ruling class under the Tsay.
The revolution intended to overthrow the ruling class, hence the revolution of Russia was took place when Russian was partially feudal state in Rural areas and partiality a capitalist state especially in urban areas however a largepercent of Russia was under feudalism.
Socialist ideas were introduced in Russia by political socialist who were in exile and who made socialist from other countries.
NOTE: - The Russia Revolution was led by a social democratic Labor partywhich some years before revolution had already split into two groups which arethe Bolsheviks and Men shevicks however both of them agreed that at feudal and at capitalist revolutionwas necessary for establishing socialist.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MENSHEVICKS AND BOLISHEVICKS
Menshevicks, these socialist thought that contradictions in Russia were not ripe for socialist revolution due to Lack of Large industrial working class and industrial sector, So they felt that capitalist should led the revolution against feudalism in the country and later on workers will be able to gain experience for Later socialist revolution.
Bolsheviks, these are extreme socialist, this group was led by V.J. Lenin. The Bolshevik criticized the men shevicks for treating Marxism as a dogma (doctrine) which means theories said by Marx should not be changed VI Lenin argued that Karl-max once said. In time of revolution there must be flexibility.
This group believed that the capitalist could not play a progressive ant feudal lord in Russia because the capitalist asked with the ruling class under Tsa Nicholaus II to oppress, humiliateand exploit the normal Russians (Majority) hence Lenin and his group believed that the revolution should be Learn by the party of the working class which must make alliancewith the poor peasant.
PROBLEMS FACED THE RUSSIANS BETWEEN 1860 UP TO 1917
1. The peasants were not independent.
This was because they had no Land as they were exploited by the ruling feudal class, they were terribly living in poor conditions where by their life were verybad under acute poverty.
2. Lack of Real Freedom to the Serfs.
There was not real freedom to the serfs who usually they offered their works tothe feudal Lord but their life wasin Low standard.
3. Serfs were almost slaves where they had no rights in their life.
In spite of the emancipation of 1861 movement to demand for their rights but they were not given their rights but they were not given their rights For example, not given Land, freedom of human rights etc and they continued topay a feefor 49 years for the benefit of the ruling class.
4. The Russian society also faced a lot of problem in their life.
For example, humiliation, segregation, exploitation oppression etc. where bythe feudal ruling class in collaboration with capitalist and feudal lords used to humiliate, segregate and exploit the normal Russians.
5. Workers were not allowed to form their trade unions.
This was in order to restrict them to demand for their rights despite of theproblems they faced while working in industries.
6. Russia was not well developed.
This was because Russia was characterized by backwardness economy and under development because during this the Russia was still depending on Agrarian economy.
7. Russian people were forced to pay high taxation.
This led them to be deprived their rights and freedom of speech by Tsa regime, Orthodox Church and the feudal lords because Russians who had nothing to ownwere forced bythe ruling class to pay high tax for their benefit.
8. There was a miserable life to all Russians.
For example, people lived and sleeping in congested houses with no ventilation no sufficient food, no education to children, people were punished publicly bythe feudal Lords, all these problems led the people of Russia to support the October, 1917 revolution in Russia.
CAUSES / FACTORS / REASONS / BACKGROUND FOR RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF 1917
1. A Poor Leadership of Tsar Nicholaus II.
The poor leadership led to the Russian revolution of 1917. This is because when Russia was under the rule of Tsa Nicholaus II the capitalist and feudal Lords allied with the Tsa Nicholaus to exploit and oppress the ordinary people in Russian this ordinary people were poor, having no land, faced poor working condition hence the intensive exploitation and oppression by Tsa led the Russiansto support the revolution in Octoer, 1917.
Moreover the Tsa regime refused to introduce Reforms and changes in Russia, These led Tsa Nicholaus to adopt a bogus or sham democracy which increased the problem in the society because in this democracy the Tsa would dissolve theDUMA at any time he wish to do so.
The fist DUMA was introduced in 1906 but dissolved in the same year by Tsa Nicholaus II other Dumas which was introduced in 1907 lived for short period be being dissolved again, these led the increase of strikes, boycott and demonstrations and blood killings increased in Russia especially from 1905 whichpaved a way for October, 1917 revolution.
2. The effects of the World War 1 of 1914 –1918.
The World War 1 accelerated to the October, revolution in Russia because during this war Russia allied with the triple entente of Britain, France and USA to fight against the triple alliance of Germany, Italy and Austria- Hungary.
In the war Russian army which fought in the two general fronts which was in the East against Germany and South against Austria-Hungary but in his front Russian army was defeated by Germany, where by many soldiers were lived and many others were wounded.
But also the war increased expenditure which led the decline of economy in Russia while the coast of living increased for example workers in factories for long working hours to earn little in order for them to survive and goodsdistribution was inefficient which led long lines for bread in Russia cities especially in petrograd.
This increased strikes of workers who demanded for bread, The war also led soldiers who were living in villages to increase strikes demanding for their rights which they were promised to be given after the war hence the increase of boycotts, demonstrations and strikes which become the all of the day in major cities led Tsa Nicholaus II to resign from power on March 1917 officially15/03/1917 and his power was taken by prince Lvov.
3. The Weakness of the Formed Provisional Government.
This was formed after the resignation of Tsa Nicholaus II had a lot of weakness revolution, Prince Lvov who assumed leadership on July 1917 and thereafter Kerensky led the provision government not interested to make changes in Russia and become un popular to the majority in Russia due to thefollowings:-
(a) This government was in favor of continuous WWI which could not loving peace in Russia while people were no longer with thewar.
(b) This government could not provide food and guarantee land to the majorityin Russia.
(c) The government failed to solve the fundamentals of Russians who were the majoritylike to remove inflection, unemployment.
once Bolshevik come in exposed the weakness of the provisional government tothe majority and succeeded to mobilize them for more support in 1917 October revolution for example V.I Lenin who a lived in Russia April 1917 from exile in Switzerland through Germany he organized the Bolshevik who promised them food, peace and land restoration therefore in October, 1917 the Masses allied with him in Bolshevik revolution.
4. The good and strong leadership of V.I Lenin and other committed socialist to make a revolution.
The strong and committed leadership under the Bolshevik party led the revolution of October, 1917 because these Bolshevik leaders wanted nothing except the revolution for example Leaders like V.I Lenin, Joseph Stalin and Trotsky worked likea five in order to active a socialist revolution regardless a number of obstacle they faced like improvement, exile in Finland and Later on Switzerland, Trotsky escaped to America and Joseph escaped worked day and night even in exile and even when they come back secretly they did not surrender rather they continued until they succeeded to make a revolution in October, 1917.
For example Lenin when he arrived from exile he outlived his program to the Bolshevik at the railways station in April 1917:-
vBreads for workers. vLand for workers. vGood life for Russians.
vGood education for Russian children.
Hence his program attracted the majority in Russia who supported him in a revolution.
5. The Teaching of Karl-max and Engels.
Contributed much in the Oct. 1917 Russian revolution because Max and Engels inspired a lot in the development of socialist thought in Russian e.g. intheir famous books “Das capital” and “Communist manifesto” Max and Engels spread the revolution ideas of establishing a communist state which would be out of capitalist evils hence it was those ideas that V.I Lenin used to implement in consciously Russians to participate in the October, 1917 Russianrevolution. In fact if Karl-max and Engels had not propounded the ideas of socialism then it could not be possible for socialism to be successful in Russia.
6. The Russia – Japanese War (Conflict) 1905.
In this conflict/ war Russian was miserable defeated by Japan, this accelerated to October, 1917 revolution in Russia because many Russian become annoyed and disappointed with Tsar regime (government) and they lost hope with Tsa’s regime due to the fact that this war led to the decline of Russian economy, the lifeof normal Russian become difficult.
Most of the soldiers were not given their good economic aspectslike Land which were promised to be given after the war Russian government had to borrow money to run the government from the capitalist so all the people in Russia were to look for another alternative way to remove the Tsa regime from political power hence they supported October, 1917 revolution.
7. The miserable economic condition of Russia.
Before the revolution Russia was under feudalism in most parts of Russia except the few towns where a small number of workers worked under a foreign capitalist invested in Russia.
So majority of Russians lived in acute poverty, faced with hunger and famine, natural calamities was common to the people of Russia all these miserable economic conditions in Russia promised people to ask for change so as to be in better life. The only way for a change was through the October, 1917 Revolution.
THE EFFECTS OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION TO RUSSIANS
1. Emergence/Existence of the New Government
The revolution managed to over throw the provisional government of Kerensky and established the Bolshevik government under VI Lenin.
2. Restoration of Peace, Security and Unity in Russia.
Russia was immediately able to restore peace, security and bring unity among Russians after withdrawing from World War 1.
3. Russia was nationalized all the private properties such as crow land, Land Lord Land, churches Land without compensation and gave it to the peasant through peasant committee.
Likewise the foreign investments which was industries were nationalized but because the industries nationalized belongs to western power it led to the occurrence of the war between the white (Army of Western investors) against the Reds (Bolshevik army) from 1918 – 1920 however the Bolshevik won.
4. Separation of Church and State with abolition of Religion and School (secular state).
The Church and the state were separated while religions and education in school was abolished (secular state).
5. Emergence of Class Differences
Class differences in the society were abolished in which equality between man by man, sexes was observed and a decree (Law) was passed against inheritance of property.
6. Consolidation of Communist Bolshevik Party in different Mechanisms.
The revolution led the communist of the Bolshevik party to be able to consolidate themselves in power by using different mechanism for example, using special secret police called cheka, to imprison, to kill or exile anti communist leadership where by some people exiled early and all anticommunist element in Russian society was eliminated.
7. In 1921 Lenin introduced a special program known as the New Economic Policy (NEP).
This program introduce by which a limited degree of capitalism was allowed for example, people were allowed to own small enterprises, small scale industry, not allowed to own and control the key economic sectors e.g. banking, heavy industries, foreign trade etc.
Addition:-In promoting the development of the country the five yearsdevelopment plan was started by the Bolshevik starting from (1928 – 1932, 1932 –1937, 1937 – 1942, 1942 – 1947, 1947 – 1952).
In this program the Bolshevik mobilized people but also the Bolshevik were responsible to evaluate the success of the goals by directing people to involve in expected goals of development.
8. The Bolshevik party had a socialist democratic structure for mass participation in discussion.
Decision making and implementation of the goals, this structure was from the grassroot level to the national level which always ensured discipline and national unit within the party but it also directed Russian foreign policy, education and others in Russian society.
THE IMPACT OF RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF OCT. 1917 WORLD WIDE
1. The revolution led to spread of socialist & communist ideas in different parts of the world.
This was especially in Eastern Europe Asia, Southern America and in Africa for example the spread of Asia to Asian where by several states emerged as a socialist state like China, North Korea, Cambodia, Vietnam, Raos, Northern America to Cuba, Southern America it spread to Chile and in Africa was inMozambique, Tanganyika, Angola, Ghana, Egypt etc.
2. The October, Revolution of 1917 Led to cold war politics in the world.
This was the war between the Eastern camp led by United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) and the Western camp under United States of America (U.S.A) whereby these two camps followed different ideology thus why led to the emergence of cold war politics.
3. Revolution of 1917 led to the Formation of Military Alliance.
This was Military Alliance between the eastern camp and western camp where each camp formed a military alliance to defend and for example the eastern camp with socialist ideology formed the WARSAW PACT in (1950’s) while thewestern camp with capitalism ideology formed NATO in 1948.
4. The revolution of 1917 led to decolonization process in the colonized areas in Africa and Asia.
This was where by Russia helped the nationalist morally and materially like provided food, money, advice and guns to the nationalist in order to defeat colonialism because Russia believed that colonialism and capitalism is like brother and sister due to the fact that it colonized people, humiliating them, looking for labor, raw materials, expanding market in different colonized areasfor the world.
5. Russian revolution of 1917 led to nationalization of all private properties and wealth in other socialist countries in the world.
For example, private property are land, bank, factory were nationalized and put under the control of the government in different socialist country for the benefit of the people in those countries.
6. The Revolution of 1917 Led to Formation of NAM (Non Aligned Movement) in the Third World Countries or Poor Nations.
This was where by these poor countries formed NAM in order to government economic, political, social and technical assistance from both socialist and capitalist countries.
7. The Revolution of 1917 Led to the Emergence of the Two Enmity Blocks in the System of Production and Administration.
This was where by the socialist invited themselves under the eastern bloc while capitalism led the followers of the system to unite themselves under the western block, this two block existed until early 1990’s when socialism collapsed in Russia due to economic and political reforms occurred in the world.
EFFECTS OF RUSSIAN REVOLUTION IN AFRICA
1. It intensified/ increased ant colonial struggles for those who were fighting for self determination and self rule.
This was whereby Russia provided more support and moral support to African nations in order to fight against colonialist due to the fact that colonialism and capitalism are two sides of the same coin.
2. It intensified / increased to spread of socialist ideology and adoption of socialism in various African nations.
For example Ujamaa village which was the result of family hood in Tanzania, common mans charter in Uganda Harambee (Kenya) and Humanism in Zambia.
3. Created a Political Awareness in Africa.
This was especially when many Africans began to go in Russia for education; this was because Russia provided scholarship to Africans to go in Russia to study many things includingsocialism.
4. In increased the enmity in African nations.
This was due to the fact that there some African nations which followed capitalist ideology and others followed socialism.
Those nations which followed socialism were not in good learning with those nation followed capitalism for example Due to that ideology in East Africa let to the collapse of former East Africa Community (EAC) in 1977.
SIGNIFICANCE OF RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF OCTOBER 1917 IN THE WORLD
1. The Russian revolution brought a new social and political system in the world.
This was because after Russian revolution which witnessed at the first time the theory of scientific socialism to put into practice in the world history led the birth of socialism as a new social and political system.
2. The Russian led to polarization of the world in to conflicting ideological camps.
There were socialism in one hand with Eastern black and capitalism with western block so there was a great advantage to different nations of the world because those nations which were under socialism were to get assistance Both material support and moral from United Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), and those nations which were under capitalism were to get assistance from United States of America (U.S.A) for both economic, social, political and technical development.
3. The Russian led to demonstration that socialism can be build even under unprompted conditions.
That is can be built anywhere because by that time of socialist revolution in Russia, Russia was still dominated by feudal mode of production in large partsbut it managed to build socialism.
4. The Russian led to the formation of Non Alignment Movement (NAM) in the LDC.
In whichtheintention of formation of NAM was to look for a middle cause of the cold war politics involved in the super powers but also it aimed to attract economic, social, political and technical assistance from both super powers of the world in that time which was United Soviet Socialist Rupublic (USSR) and United States of America (U.S.A) to the power nation.
5. The Russian inspired and accelerated liberation struggles and decolonization process in colonized areas of Africa and Asia by providing both material and moral support to the nationalist.
For example the concept of the national question advocated by Joseph Stalin called upon the colonized people to fight against colonialism as well asimperialism led by United States of America (U.S.A) which wanted colonies tobe freefor her to invest, to exploit, to get labor, market and raw materials.
6. There was ideological reliance.
This advocated by Russia after the revolution of October 1917 led newly nation in Africa and Asia to rely on United Soviet Socialist Rupublic (USSR) in matters related to socialist construction all wise Russia provided tangible support to the newly nations of African and Asia by providing those newly nations grants and aids also Asia vice technical assistance, military assistance of so that these newly nation could defect colonialism and imperialism led by U.S.A.
THE CHINESE REVOLUTION 1949
The situationin China before Revolution:-
BEFORE THE REVOLUTION
1. China was ruled by oppressive and exploitation feudal system which were disliked by the workers.
This feudal class comprised the feudal dynasty (class) at home but also there were imperialist powers which had invested in China, these imperialist powers exploited the workers by giving them low wages Working long hours and livingin poor conditionor situation.
2. The Serfs were both psychologically and physically tortured. The serfswere tortured, harassed and over worked by the Land Lords.
3. All the land belongs to the land Lords and majority of the peasants were land less.
Hence they obliged to work under the feudal lords who paid them low wages and made them to work long hours etc this increased enmity among theChinese.
4. Harshness of Geographical condition.
China had harsh climatic conditions which led droughts, famine hunger and starvation but also floods and epidemic diseases were common among theChinese.
5. Mass Unemployment.
There were rampant unemployment among the people in China hence the huge number or majority of China had no employment and they lived like beggars.
6. There were poor provision of infrastructure and social services in China.
For example, there were no good roads, ports and harbor, telecommunication no education facilities which made majority illiterates and poor medical carewhichled massive death among the people in China.
7. China was highly divided into two classes.
This was whereby at the top there was King, group of literate, Land Lords and at the bottom were the serfs who were the majority being exploited by the land Lords.
8. Chinese industries were poorly developed.
This was whereby these industries used low and poor technology but also industries were un evenly developed and distributed however these industries were owned by the capitalist in the West who invested in China and therefore industries played a minimal role in national economy because they were very backwardness and they were not own by the people of Chinarather foreigners.
9. Japan was a traditional enemy of China.
This was where she used to attack China for raw materials e.g. In 1931 Japan attacked Manchuria which was thepart of China etc.
CAUSES OF THE CHINESE REVOLUTIONIN 1949
1. Good leadership of Mao Tse-Tung.
Mao managed to mobilize the peasants in the country side to against the feudal dynasty and later they succeeded to make a revolution in 1949.
2. The Philosophy of Confucianism.
These philosophies developed among the people in China which was insisting on cooperation, unit working hard and resting exploitation, humiliation and oppression of the feudal class and the foreign imperialist; hence the philosophyof Confucianism led people in China to unite themselves under the comrade of Mao Tse-Tung to make the Chinese Revolution in 1949.
3. An Autocratic Rule of the Feudal Class in China.
During the feudal class the Chinese were oppressed exploited, tortured, harassed by the feudal class in their country, they had no freedom to talk and propose anything about the development of their country therefore they united under the leadership of Mao Tse- Tung to make theChinese revolution in 1949.
4. The Problems of the Chinese /Massive.
During the feudal rule the Chinese society faced with a lot of problems like unemployment, Famine and hunger, floods in the country, droughts, epidemic diseases, poor provision of social /services and Chinese society to be unsatisfied with the ruling feudal class therefore decided to unite together under the leadership of Mao Tse-Tung to make Chineserevolution in 1949.
5. The Teaching of Karl-Max and Engels.
This was also accelerated to Chinese revolution because Mao who was a founder of Chinese revolution read the books of Karl max and Engels whichwas about the revolution as the solution to establish socialism in the world history; therefore Mao understand well the theory of Max and Engels whoinsisted on revolution to insist socialism hence Mao used the teachings of Karl-max to mobilize and unite his fellow Chinese to makethe revolution in 1949.
6. The failure of Chinese rule to end the conflict with Japan was also another cause for Chinese revolution 1949.
During the feudal rule in China; Japan which was the traditional enemy of China used to attack and annex some parts of China for raw materials likecoal and iron ore and the Chinese rule kept quite during those enormities for example In 1931 when Japan attacked Manchuria, 1937, 1936 and 1940’s hence the people accrued the feudal ruling class for failure to dissolve the conflict hence they have support Mao Tse-Tung for Chinese revolution in 1949.
POLITICAL & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA SINCE 1949
The revolution in China which was conducted by Chinese communist party under comrade Mao Tse-Tung for almost 30 years (from 1921 – 1949) was mostly centered in struggle in rural areas, hence it was peasant based revolution and therefore far within 30 years Mao Tse-Tung become popular and government large mass support.
NB: - There was no specific training for thosewho wanted to join the revolution; it involved all peasants. It started in the rural areas and spread to town; this is because the revolution in China involved more peasants rather than the working class and this is why Marxist scholars have argued that the Chinese revolution was against the Marxist way of conducting a socialist revolution.
After the revolution, the following political and economic development was seenin China, this was due to the various strategies adopted in order to build China.
1. Industrialization Policy
This policy Chinese did the followings:-
(a) Nationalized all the industries which were previously under, the imperialist and Japanese control, these industries were put under the control of the government in Municipalities and rural areas.
(b) At Shanghai and Hong Kong a modification of the control of the privateown of industries were done whereby workers were allowed to supervisetheir employers activities, working conditions, raw material and sell thefinished goods.
(c) The United soviets Socialist Republic (USSR) model of heavy industries was adopted during 1953 to 1957 that is there were five years development plan; this was capital intensive which led to heavyindustrialization inChina.
(d) The great leap forward of 1958-1960 was adopted; this policy was first industrialization whereby people were allowed to use their own initiativestowards industrialization.
2. On Land Policy
The Chinese government under the communist party led by Mao Tse-Tung did the following strategies on land;
(i) All the land was taken from the land lords and given to the peasants.
(ii) The great revolution on land was done where by the rapid change in agricultural period was adopted such as to improve the varieties of seedsin order to increase production, the use of fertilizers, prevention of soil erosion, land reclamation, deep ploughing, plant protection, close plating, floods control in the river of Yang Tse– Kiang, Si-Kiang and Hwang Ho, pest and diseases control, irrigation system and seeds improvement.