THREATS TO WORLD PEACE AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR (WWII)
The Cold War
This was the part of mounting (results) of political and ideological tension between the communist with socialist ideology led by the former USSR and thewestern block with capitalism ideology led by United States of America (U.S.A) The cold war started after the former United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) became the most powerful nation leading the socialist nations in the world while United States of America (U.S.A) became the most powerful nation economically, politically and militarily leading the capitalist nation in the world especially after The Second World War (WWII) of 1945.
FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF COLD WAR
1. Ideological Differences between the Eastern Block with Socialist Ideology and Western Block with Capitalist Ideology.
Hence the two ideologies existed in the world history since Russian revolution up to early of 1990’s led to the existence of the cold war between the eastern block following socialism under the former United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) and the western block following capitalism under United States of America (U.S.A)
2. Russia motives of grabbing and occupying territories due to the Expansionism Policy of Russia.
Russia intended and aimed at annexing and occupying territories in eastern Europe during and after Second World War (WWII) for example after the Germany forces were driven out by Russia then the western block interpreted that was the plan to spread communism, hence Russia wasresisted to get more areas in eastern Europe and by 1945 when Russia controlled eastern German, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Austria to the president of United Statesof America (U.S.A) by then Winston Churchill 1946 called Russia as “Iron curtain across Europe” meaning communist barriers in Europe, this increased enmity between Russia and United States of America (U.S.A)
3. The colonial powers like Britain and France were hungered by the eastern block with the ideology of socialism in support of communist liberation movement.
This led to the increase of enmity between eastern block and western block with capitalism ideology hence the outbreak of the cold war because all the colonial powers were under the capitalist ideology led by United States of America (U.S.A) , due to the fact that the aim of capitalism and imperialism are the samelike segregation, humiliation, oppression, exploitation etc. while the eastern block wanted to end colonialism and capitalism with their evils in their colonial areasof Africa and Asia.
4. Existence of Neo–colonialism with its motives in the newly independent nations in Africa, Asia and Latin America
This led by United States of America (U.S.A) with her ideology of “The Truman Doctrine and the Marshal Plan of 1947” where by the Americans under Truman doctrine would give aids and grants to any country in Europe with war under communism threat and the post of marshal plan of 1947 whereby the American wanted colonies to be free for United States of America (U.S.A) to exploit, to get labor, raw materials, areas for investment for the development of America, all these increased enmity between the eastern block and westernblock hence the cold war.
5. The formation of the military alliances which were Northern Atlantic Treaty Organozation (NATO) in 1948 for the west and The War Saw Pact in 1950s for the east.
This military alliances formed the increase of enmity and conflicts between the socialist nations with the ideology of socialism against that with the ideology of capitalism, because the formation of these alliances like NATO by the west in 1949 was to prevent the communist expansionism, this angered Russia which in reaction against the capitalist formed war saw Pact in 1955 increased conflicts hence cold war.
6. The secret manufacturing and development of dangerous weapons like atomic bombs, air jets, tents etc.
By the western blocks such as United States of America (U.S.A) and Britain; rose suspicious in the eastern block led by the former United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) because the eastern block under USSR fail to know themotives of United States of America (U.S.A)
Britain hence in reply in 1948 USSR shocked the west by dipping an atomicbombs leading to more tension, In 1960 United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) was the first nation to send her Aeroplane to the moon known as Apollo and reply United States of America (U.S.A) did the same in 1970s.
7. The involvement of United States of America (U.S.A) in affairs on matters of Europe.
This hungered Russia with its expansionism policy aiming at spreading communism in the world, United States of America (U.S.A) involved in the European matters for example, turkey and Greece which was not accepted by Russia which saw it as the undermining her power and influence in the east.
There after Russia interfered into those state contrary to UNO’s charter which against a nation to interfere internal matters of another state which led to the increase of conflict between eastern block and western block.
MANIFESTATION OF THE COLD WAR
The following are the areas where the cold war was very much existed;
(i)Creation of Military Alliances.
Through the creation of military alliances which were NATO in 1949 against war saw pact in 1950s.
(ii)Emergence of Cuban Missiles Crisis of October 1962.
This whereby the west led by United States of America (U.S.A) forced Russia to withdraw her army and weapons for Cuba.
(iii) The Truman Doctrine of 1947.
Thi was whereby the president of United States of America (U.S.A) declared that it is a duty of United States of America (U.S.A) to prevent the spread of communism everywhere in the world, so as capitalism to win by spreadingdifferent parts of the world thus why the Truman would offer aid to any nation which was under the treaty.
(iv) The Berlin Airlift of 1949.
This was whereby for eleven months United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) blocked all the roads, railways and canal traffic from the West Germany capitalist forcing them to feed their people in West Berlin by air, thiswas due to the post dam arrangement in which the eastern Berlin was given to Russia and the westernBerlin was given capitalist.
(v)The Greece and Turkey Incident in 1947.
This was due to the community who wanted to overthrow the Greece and turkey government followed by capitalist ideology and which was under the British colonies because British was weak military and economically to compete with Russia, she appealed to United States of America (U.S.A) to intervene, United States of America (U.S.A) intervened in crushing the communist elements.
(vi) The Marshal Plan Policy of 1947.
This was whereby United States of America (U.S.A) in this policy of the marshal plan wanted colonies to be free for United States of America (U.S.A) to invest, exploit, get labor, market and raw materials. But also United States of America
(U.S.A) wanted the capitalist western block to unite against the creation ofCOMENCON (Council of Mutual assistance in Eastern Europeled by Russia).
(vii) The Post Dam Conference of 1945.
The western powers were willing to sharethe administration of their zones and sections, however there was the creation of eastern German under Russia and the creation of Taiwan of 1949 under the strong American support following the communist Chinese revolution in 1948, Taiwan was recognized as anindependent nationby America while china claimed to be part of his nation.
CAUSES/REASONS/FACTORS FOR THE COLLAPSE OF THE COLD WAR
1. Imperialist Maneuvers/Tricks.
This led to the collapse of the cold war because the capitalists used a lot of mechanism and efforts to make sure that could war should not exist in the world hence the cold war collapsed, capitalists helped to come into power the reformist leaders in Russia like Mikhail Gorbachev with hispolicy of perestroika and glasnost and there after president Born Yeltsin whose his policies supportedcapitalism and ceased the cold war.
2. The big power were not interested in any more conflicts after the great war in the cold war (WWI &WWII) which lead to the threat of the world peace and security.
Therefore those big powers wanted the lasting peace, security and mutual co existence, hence a need to end the cold war for example, they held the high level talks between United States of America (U.S.A) and United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) about the end of the cold war; this talks involved thepresident (Khrusher) of Russia and eisen hower United States of America (U.S.A) in 1959 and 1969 and later between Khrusher and president John Kennedy of United States of America (U.S.A)
Likewise there was establishment of Washington to Moscow hotlines in 1963 as a direct communication link to prevent cold war resulting from misunderstandings and in 1963 United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR), United States of America (U.S.A) and Britain signed a test ban treaty in Moscow aiming atdisarmament and arms control, all these aimed to end the cold war.
3. Promotion of Cooperation between the Opposite Camps.
These were Eastern and Western through signing of agreement for example in 1963 the soviet – American and Anglo –American agreement for example, 1963 were signed to foster (strengthen) cooperation between the opposite camps to end the cold war.
4. Formation of Non Alignment Movement (NAM).
This was officially formed by the newly independent nations in 1961 which did not want to be involved in the cold war, hence Non-Allignment Movement (NAM) came with the formation of south commission as an attempt to prevent the cold war and neo –colonialism; hence Non Alignment Movement (NAM) managed to convince the leaders of the super powers to hold different summit talk in order to prevent the arm race with conflicting in the third world countries, this led to the collapse of the cold war.
5. The collapse of United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) and the Eastern block with their ideology of Socialism.
This was due to lack of enough economic competition led to end of rivalry and cold war because after the fall of United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR), United States of America (U.S.A) was left alone as the super power in the world which is now existing as a unipolar world trying to do whatever suits her interests; as the former president of United Statesof America (U.S.A) George W. Bush said “The New World Order” which means United States of America (U.S.A) is the police of the world with preemptive treaty (Policy) Which means attack any nation before being attacked.
6. The efforts taken by United Nations (UN) to end the cold war.
This was another reason for the collapse of the cold war because; UN made endless talks for ending of enemies/hostilities between the western camp and the eastern camp, this led to the end of the cold war.
7. Realization on the part of United States of America (U.S.A) and United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR).
These were the super powers of the world in those days realized that there was a big short fall in food production caused by over concentration on arm race, space exploitation Least Developed Countries (LDCs) tend to involve in civilwars due to arm races from the super power to these Least Developed Countries (LDCs) but also the testing ground of weapons are in the third world hence they need to end the cold war.
EFFECTS OF THE COLD WAR
The effects of the cold war were mostly serious in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs)as elaborated below;
1. The cold war divided the world into two camps.
These were the eastern block with socialist ideology and western block with capitalist ideology. But this was more serious in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) because these Least Developed Countries (LDCs) defended on big powers for their development hence the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) were supposed to follow whatever the super power wanted for their development.
2. The cold war led to interstate wars and civil wars.
This was especially in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) because different nations were supported by either western block or eastern block, but also different groups in the same nation that opposed to each other were also supported separately by the two different camps of either western or easternblock for example in Angola, Mozambique, Afghanistan and in interstate wars are northern Korea against southern Korea in 1950s, Vietnam against United Statesof America (U.S.A) war 1980s.
3. The cold war led to military coup d’état in many countries of the world.
This was especially in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) because different countries were sponsored by rival blocks eastern or western against the government which was on power and accelerate the rise of dictators who could support them in power. For example in 1972 in Uganda, Milton Obote wasoverthrown by Amin dada, in Ghana 1966; Nkrumah was overthrown by capitalist labels, in Ethiopia Mangtsuwas overthrown by the capitalist labels.
4. The cold war led to establishment of military bases in different countries in the world.
This was because United States of America (U.S.A) with western block established military bases in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) in spread of communism in the name of the terrorism for example United States of America (U.S.A) bases in Kenya, Saudi Arabia, Kuwaiti Somalia as United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) did in Cuba to protect her interest in the eastern camp.
5. The cold war led to the influence of Russia to support liberation movement in colonial areas.
This was especially in Africa for self rule in order the colonized people to defeat and get out of colonialism which had the same aim of capitalism due to evils of colonialism and capitalism in the colonies for example, exploitation, humiliation, oppression and segregation.Likewise the movements supported by Russia were MPLA in Angola, FRELIMO in Mozambique and PAIGC in Guinea Bissau.
6. The cold war led to transfer of military technology and arm factory from developed countries/super powers to the LDC.
In order to strengthen their military power and be able to defend themselves with different ideology and protect their nations against their enemies for examplein South Africa during the apartheid policy.
7. The cold war was an obstacle to Pan –Africanism and formation of Organisation of African Unity (OAU).
Since the cold war had divided the African states into two camps the following different ideologies for example the Casablanca (socialist) and the Monrovia
were the capitalist, hence these two blocks disagreed in many issues except on onething which was opposing the apartheid policy in South Africa.
8. The cold war led many third world countries to benefit from the cold war situation.
This was because the two blocks were willing to offer as much aids as possiblein order to maintain their friendship and presence/existence in LDC for example the liberation movement in Zaire, Angola and Cuba in socialist, in capitalist in Kenya, Afghanistan etc.
9. The cold war strengthened and prolonged the existence of Apartheid policy in South Africa.
Since the Western camp strongly needed friendship with economically strategicof South African Boers regime like President De – Clark and President Botter.
10. The cold war prolonged the Israel –Arabs conflict
Because of the supports both military and economically from the eastern camp and western camps; whereby the western provided economic aids and armiesto Israel and the eastern camps provided armiesto Arabs.
THE END OF COLD WAR
The chief cause of the end of the cold war was the collapse of communism in society union and Eastern Europe. Under the president Mikhail Gorbachev who cause to power in the mind of 1980’s United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) started to restrictive her international and Foreign policies. This eventually led to the disintegration of United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) and eventuallythe end of cold war.
CAUSE FOR THE END OF COLD WAR
All in all the cause for the end of cold war can be summarized into two factors:
(i) The reignof Mikhail Gorbachev who restricted society’s foreign policies. (ii) The influence of United Statesof America (U.S.A).
(iii)Economic difficulties in United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) during thereign of Gorbachev.
NB: - In December 1989 -1990 Gorbachev and George H.W Bush declared the cold war officiallyover at a summit meeting in Malta.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE END OF COLD WAR
1. They marked the end of the broadly bipolar structure based on us. Society rivalry which the international system has assumed since the late 1940’s.
2. The Former communist states experience serious problems of transition ranging from economic collapse.
This affected them all for example, in society union because Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia the disintegration of state itself was experienced.
3. It resulted to the new or modified roles for International Organization.
For instance it ended the automatic split in the United Nation (UN) Security Council along cold war lines. This related for the United Nation (UN) to work as a collective body.
4. The end of cold war had an impact on various Multilateral Treaty Organizations.
The war saw pact was disband led, while the north Atlantic treaty organization (NATO) struggled to reconceive itself it being redefined. Itself it being redefined.
THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE AND THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS (1962)
Peace is the state of harmony that exist between/among societies, individualsor even worldwide. Or,
Peace is the opposite of chaos, disharmony and conflicts. (i) Armament
Is the process of equipping for war/process of preparing for war with initials manufacturingof weapons for use in case of war.
Is the completion among nations in the process of equipping themselves for war.
Is the process of reducing, limiting, controlling or eliminating nations’ armyforces and this can be done by international agreements like the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties (SALT).
FACTORS FOR THE ARM RACE
1. Existence of the cold war between United States of America (U.S.A) and United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) with their respective camps.
This was western, block under United States of America (U.S.A) and the eastern bloc under United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR), this caused the arm race because each camp was trying to manufacture more weapons hoppingthat oneday the capitalist and the communist will fight.
2. The need to maintain the balance of power among nations of the world.
so that no one nation should military be a threat to others so the super power learnt the situation which was caused by Britain and France when Britain was themaster of military in the sea, and the France the master of military on land.
Therefore in the 20thcentury nations wanted to avoid unequal balance of power which existed in Europe between France and Britain hence they involved arm race.
3. Due to Self Defense.
The super powers of those days argued thatthe increaseof arm race was due to protecting and defending themselves against their enemies and conflictsbrought by the existence of cold war and formation of military alliances like Northern Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and War Saw Pact for the eastern block.
4. Arm Race was due to Aggressive Purposes.
This true when we consider the threat from the western block led by United States of America (USA) under the umbrella of Northern Atlantic TreatyOrganisation (NATO) in the weak nation for example United States of America (USA) military has been used to invade other countries like Libya in 1988 and 2011, Iraq several times, Pakistan, Somalia, Panama and Afghanistan.
5. Arm race is due to make other countries fear the Super Powers.
This was because of their military and economically strong tend to threatened the weak nation especially the LDC in order to agree with their interest likeimposition of their rule, culture which operate through neo colonialism for example countries fear United States of America (U.S.A) due to her strong military and economic which make United States of America (U.S.A) to use it as a symbol of power and supremacy in the world.
6. Arm race was caused by the developed countries like United States of America (U.S.A), Britain, United Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), Germany and France in looking for more influence and control in the LDC.
For example; according to those big powers saw the armament/arm race as theonly way of increasing that capacity of influence and control the third world countries.
7. Arm race was also seen as an important strategy towards the third world crisis situation.
This was because the arm race could be used as the means to solve theproblems in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) especially in occurrence of war in the world for example the nuclear weapons like atomic bombs could be used as ameans of preventing the crisis.
Note:-The invasion of nuclear or atomic bombs was said to be a spark off (increase more) of the arm race because after United States of America (U.S.A) tested her nuclear bombs in Mexico in 1945 which was made in 1942, United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) explored hers in 1949 and Britain did the samein 1952.
THE IMPACTS OF ARM RACE TO THE WORLD
1. It reduced the Level of Resources.
That could have been utilized in provisional of social and economic welfare of the people in the super powers and in the third world countries.
2. Many people had lost their lives/Occurrence of Death.
This was due to use of nuclear chemical weapons and nuclear accidents such as in Nagasaki and Hiroshima atomic bombs dropped by United States of America (U.S.A) during Second World War (WWII) 1945, the Chernobyl disaster in soviet union (USSR) which caused untold biological bad consequences to life, the nuclear accident in Japan early to 2011 after the earth quack destroyed themanufacturing factoryof nuclear weapons.
3. Led to Environmental Destruction.
Following testing, giving disposal of nuclear arm race or toxic on the environment.
4. The arm race has turned the LDC as to Market for Dangerous Weapon.
This made super powers which led political instability in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) such as the outbreak of civil wars and interstate wars like in Burundi, Rwanda, Libya, Angola, Tunisia and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). but also the interstate wars like Iran vs. Iraq, north Korea vs. south Korea etc. but also the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) had been a testing ground of nuclear weapons which led the destruction of environment and conflicts in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs).
5. The arm race has been prevented the outbreak of the wars among the super powers.
This was because the super powers know the consequences of it and therefore they tend to remain only withcold war politics.
6. The arm race has caused the problem of refugees.
This was due to war emanated/fueled by the super powers in the process of arm race the problem of refugees tend to face the Least Developed Countries(LDCs) which have turned to be the moments of the arms from the super powers e.g. refugees of Angola, Rwanda, Burundi, Liberia, DRC, Somalia, Libya, Tunisia, Egypt, Syria etc.
7. The arm races have led to the increase of budget/ money/ fund in buying of guns in the LDC.
But it has also increased budget in the super powers in the process of arm races hence it is costly and consume a lot of money that the developed nation could have channeled to the Least Developed Countries (LDCs)for moredevelopment instead of usingmoney for arm race.
ATTEMPTS MADE TOWARDS DISARMAMENT
1. Through Agreements.
For example, through strategic arms limitation treaties (SALT) for example, SALT ONE and SALT TWO, these were talks aimed at strategic arm limitationwhich involved in United States of America (U.S.A) and United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR), their talks started from November 1969 to may 1972 with the signing of SALT ONE by president Nixon of USA and president Brezhnev ofUSSR which was signed in Moscow.
2. Through using United Nation (UN) general assembly.
In 1982 during the UN special disarmament session which called for elaboration and gradual implementation of nuclear disarmament program.
CONTENTS OF SALT ONE
1. It agreed on limitation of defensive ballisticmissile systems.
2. Involve the code of conduct for dealing with the crisis situation in thethird world countries.
IMPORTANCE OF SALT ONE
1. Helps the two powers to improve their relations.
2. The two powers reached agreements on the nuclear weapons especiallyputting or observing on reduction nuclear weapons for nations intending to manufacture more nuclear weapons.
3. The big powers played more active role in the Least Developed Countries(LDCs) on the problem facing them due to arms.
This began in 1974 conducted by President Jimmy Carter of United States of America (U.S.A) and Brezhnev of United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR), however the United States of America (U.S.A) senator refused to ratify because the agreement aimed at putting more efforts on a number of missile launched/ established and bombers possessed by the two powers.
1. The Washington Treaty of 1972
This aimed at putting limitation of naval armament by determine the ration for allocation of ships among the major naval powers of United States of America (U.S.A), Britain, Japan, France, Italy and United Soviet Socialist Republic(USSR)
2. The Test Ban Treaty between United States of America (U.S.A) and United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR).
This was resulted after the Cuban missile crisis whereby United States of America (U.S.A) and United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) had a direct confrontationon the missile put in Cuba by Russia.
IMPACT OF COLLAPSE OF UNITED SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC (USSR) WITH THE SOCIALIST BLOCK AND THE ARM RACE
The USSR with eastern bloc which climaxed in early 1990s had a lot of impact on arm race as elaborated below;
1. It led to end up of cold war which was a chief source of arm race betweenUnited Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) and United States of America (U.S.A).
2. The war saw Pact became incapable of making weapons and continue withrace in making weapons.
This led to the end of the war saw pact and United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) after its collapse which led to remain Russia also join Northern Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) which was pure a military alliance of the west.
3. The socialist blocks after the collapse of United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) remained free from the competition of arm race and started to criticize and fight for disarmament.
4. The United States of America (U.S.A) is now the dominant super power in the world; which has increased her military capacity to highest level hence United States of America (U.S.A) has remained as UNIPOLAR calling herself as the policy of the world for example, United States of America (U.S.A) has different military bases in almost corner of the world trying to defend and protect her interest which manifested itself in neo – colonialism in the Leat Developed Countriess (LDCs).
THE PROBLEM OF CONTROLLING THE ARM RACE
1. Absence of Mutual Trust.
The major powers have failed to trust each other as regarded to armament inspections and control hence most disarmament negotiation have failed.
2. Different propaganda between the east and the west on respecting treaties on disarmament and appealing to the international community.
This have been a cheating program/ bogus agreement or cheating program in such as at camps try to use so as they can increase arms for their interest hence control problem or fail to control arm races.
3. The collapse of United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR).
This has caused a problem on controlling arm race because United States of America (U.S.A) and her allies are now monopolizing the nuclear weapons for example, United States of America (U.S.A) forced other countries to with draw from manufacturing of dangerous weapons e.g. Iraq, Iran, Syria, North Korea etc.
This has been taken as unfair as United States of America (U.S.A) does not respect the disarmament treaties anywhere instead United States of America
(U.S.A) and her allies are increasing nuclear weapons each year hence difficult to control the arm race.
4. The Control Problem.
There has been a control problem on the matters relating with disarmament because the super power especially United States of America (U.S.A) is the leading on arm race e.g. 1946 the United Nations (UN) atomic energy commission declared a nuclear disarmament because United States of America (U.S.A)hadmonopoly over atomic powersbut United Nations (UN) was unable.
WHY DISARMAMENT/ WHY FIGHTING FOR DISARMAMENT?
The struggle for disarmament through different methods like treaties,destruction of weapon or consultation, conventions etc. was due to the following;
(i) Fear of spread of dangerous weapons to the third world; where these dangerous weapons were in danger with the global peace and security.
(ii) Fear of possible nuclear accidents that may happen due to mishandlingof weapons as what has been happened in other places of the world e.g.in January 1968 B52 bomber crushed in green land and nuclear weapons in it (B52) fell into sea, the weapons released dangerousradioactive materials in water around green land in 1979, there was nuclear accident in island nearby New - York in 2011 in Japan.
(iii)Fear of ending up with survival in case of the outbreak of the nuclear war, it destroys the whole world.
(iv)Fear to reduce the level of resources that could have been utilized in provision of social and economic welfare of the people in the super powers and in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs).
(v) Fear of environmental degradation following testing, firing or disposal of nuclear arms/toxins.
(vi)Fear of turning the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) as a market for the super powers in the term of buying nuclear weapons.
(vii) Fear of the outbreak of interstate war which would result the refugees problem especial in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs).
(viii)Fear of the increase of enmity and conflicts among different nations of the world.
(ix)Fear of losing more money in different parts of the world whether in the super powers or Least Developed Countries (LDCs) because a lot of money could be used to manufacture these weapons in the super powers but alsothe Least Developed Countries (LDCs) may use their money to buy their weapons.
(x) Fear of revenge; if countries may involve in arm race therefore a situationof revenge may occur because of confidence among nations possessing nuclear weapons.
TYPES OF DISARMAMENT
1. General Disarmament.
This involved theefforts of all nationsin disarmament program.
2. Local Disarmament.
This involves the limited number of countries in disarmament program.
3. Quantitative Disarmament.
This refersto reduction of all types of weapons.
4. Qualitative Disarmament.
This concentrate on specific category of weapons
MANIFESTATION OF THE ARM RACE
1. In the Formation of Military Alliance in the World
For example, war saw Pact Vs NATO, SEATO, CENTO, ANZUS and OAS. all these enmity/hostility militaryalliances show the presence of arm races.
2. Formation of Military Bases
This was especially in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) by the big powers for example, US – military bases in east Africa, Mogadishu, Saudi Arabia etc. and United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) in Cubafor her ballistic missiles.
3. Through the Cuban missile crisis in 1962 when USA were about to fight with USSR over Cuba.
This happened when United States of America (U.S.A) was forcing United Soviet Sociaalist Republic (USSR) to withdraw her missile in the communist Cuba so as defend Cuba from American threat this was due to the fact that United States of America (U.S.A) has been threatening to overthrow Cuba since 1959, Cuban revolution led by Fidel Castro who made Cuba a communist state and nationalized all American investments in Cuba hence Cuba created a strong relationship with Russia.
4. The Taiwan Crisis
In which Taiwan was protected and defended by United States of America (U.S.A) through her army for example, all the elections in Taiwan was conducted under the supervision of US military because china wanted tointerfere the election in Taiwan but through military threat of United States of America (U.S.A) which warned china not to interfere china surrendered or gave up.
THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
The Cuban missile crisis was a major direct confrontation between the United States of America (U.S.A) and United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) that occurred on October 1962 over the issues of the soviet which had supplied missile in installation in Cuba. Sometimes this is referred as a Caribbean crisisor October crisis and the Cuban missiles crisis is regarded by many countries of theworld as a closest approach to nuclear war.
The Cuban crisis began when the United States of America (U.S.A) discovered that Cuba had secretly installed soviet missiles, which was able to carry nuclear weapons and these nuclear weapons to hit targets across most of the United States of America (U.S.A)
Hence the discovery led to spark off/ increase the enmity between United States of America (U.S.A) and United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) whereby United Statesof America (U.S.A) imposed a naval blockageof Cuba and demanded that theUnited Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) must remove her missiles.
THE GENESIS/ORIGIN OF THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
1. In 1960, a tension began between Cuba and United States of America (U.S.A).
This led to the soviet President Nikita Khrushev began planning to supply secretly missiles in Cuba, which could produce/deliver nuclear weapons, assuming that United States of America (U.S.A) would not take any action.
2. By 1962 the missile crisis was spread in United States of America (U.S.A).
This was because of reports that United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) was channeling weapons to Cuba and in September 1962 US President John F Kennedy warned the soviets that “the greatest issue would arise” due to press of dangerous weapons inCuba.
3. In October 14, 1962 the US planners flying over in Cuba investigated on the ballistic missiles and on October 16, 1962 the US intelligence officers presented President Kennedy with photograph showing nuclear missile bases under construction in Cuba.
The photo suggested for the preparation of two which were the medium rangeballistic missile which was able to travel about 1100 neutral miles. Intermediate range ballistic missiles which was ableto reach targets at distance of about 2200nm (4100 Km) this missiles placed most major US – cities such as Los Angles, Chicago and new York city within arange of nuclear attack.
4. Kennedy saw the evidence of nuclear capable bombers.
Hence Kennedy faced a situation with potentially grave consequences. However he had no clear choice on the action to take against Russia though he knew that an attack on soviet is like to attack the global nuclear war that would result in loss of millions of life of the people.
5. United States of America (U.S.A) promised to defend the city of Berlin in Germany which was under the pressure following the threats from the communist.
East Germany in which Khrushchev had threatened to take over the west Berlin and told Kennedy that he was willing to bring the matter to the point of war for example President Khrushchev set a deadline of 13 days for the resolutions of the matter.
6. Before the Cuban missile crisis began Kennedy and his advisers believed that US nuclear superiority would prevent any aggressive soviet moves.
But when the photographs of missiles arrived Kennedy and his experts agreed that the weapons might have placed in Cuba to keep USA from going to war over West Berlin. However Kennedy continued in believing in his nuclear superiority for him:-
“Doing nothing about the missiles would only increase the danger in another war threatening crisis later in the year this time over Berlin”.
7. The Cuban missile crisis lasted only 30 days but it had very important psychological and historical significance.
REASONS FOR THE USSR LAUNCHING OF NUCLEAR MISSILE IN CUBA
1. To stop United States of America (U.S.A) attempt to over throw communist government of Cuba under Fidel Castro. United States of America (U.S.A) attempted to overthrow Fidel Castro in two movements.
a) The Bay of Pigs Invasion
It was an unsuccessfully action by a CIA trained force of Cuban exiles toinvade southern Cuba; it was an attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro in April 1962. But the movement proved failure after being defeated by Cuban trained soldiers.
b) Operation Mangoose (The Cuban Project)
This project was also known as special group Augmented
It was a program of central intelligent Agency (CIA) Convert operations develop during the early years of president of United States of America (U.S.A) John F. Kennedy. On November 30, 1961, the aggressive convert operation was launched against the communist government of Fidel Castro.
Therefore, even that movement failed again United Soviet Socialist Republic(USSR) launched the Nuclear Missile in Cuba so as to threaded US interference onCuba internal affairs.
2. It was also a reaction toward western European and US a moment process. USSR was threatened by the military advancement of Western Europe and the USA. Far instance in1958 United Kingdom deployed.
a) Thor IRBM (International Range Ballistic Missiles).
b) Jupiter IRBM in Italy a Turkey in 1961.
Also USA built 100 missiles having capacity to strila Moscow with Nuclear war heads.
3. Military strategic reason to USSR. Cuba is very near to USA; therefore, nuclear missile in Cuba was a serious threat to the USA.
HOW THE CONFRONTATION ENDED
The confrontation ended on October 28, 1962 when President John F. Kennedy of USA and secret agreement with Khrushchev (Nikita) of United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR). Publicity they agreed that Soviet Union would dismantle their offensive weapons in Cuba and return them to Soviet Union, subject to UN verification in exchange for a United States of America (U.S.A) public declaration and agreement to never invade Cuba.
THE CREATION OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL (1948) AND THE PALESTINIAN Historical Background of Palestinian
The origin of the problem went back almost 2,000 years when most of the Jewish were driven out of Palestine, which was their homeland by Romans. In fact, small communities of Jews stayed in Palestine and over the following 1700 years, there was a gradual trickle of Jews returning from exile.
The movement of Jewish to return to their land of Palestine is known asZionism. Therefore Zionism represents itself as a political movement concerned principally withthe establishment of Jewish state in Palestine.
British Foreign Minister Arthur Balfour in 1917 promised to create a none for the Jew in “Balfour Declaration” Palestine became a British mandate to replace Ottoman Empire, which was suppressed during the First World War. Therefore, large numbers of Jewish began to arrive in Palestine and Arabs protests greatly the exodus of Jewish settlement.
UNITED NATION ORGANISATION (UNO’S) MOTIVES TO DEVIDE PALESTINE (1947)
1. United Nation Organisation (UNO) implemented the partition plan of
Palestine in 1947 in order to create the state of Israel.
2. The key objective of United Nation Organisation (UNO) to divide Palestine to reconcile peace among the PalestineArabs theJewish.
3. Furthermore, UN also was sympathized by the mass genocide of Jews by Adolf Hitler in Germany.
Therefore, creation of the Jewish state was an attempt to rescue the Jews from mistreatment.
IMPACTS OF DECLARATION OF NEW STATE OF ISRAEL (1948)
1. It led to the growth of conflict between Palestinians Arabs and the Jewishdue to the land question.
2. Emergence of suicide bombing attacks to the Jewish by the Palestinian Arabs.
3. Interference of United States of America (U.S.A) and the western country tothe Middle East politics and diplomacy.
4. Formation of ant-Jews organization and military wings. These were formed by the Palestinians to foster liberation movement for example, P.L.O.
5. Officiallyit ended the British man dale over Palestine.
ARAB – JEWISH WARS (1956 -1973)
These wars were the manifestation of inherent conflict between the Arabs nations and the Jewish due to the question of land on Palestine. On the other land the Jewish were on the defence motive to restore their land which theygrabbed from the Palestinians.
CAUSES OF ARABS – JEWISH WARS
1. Proclamation of Israel state (1947) (1948) implemented.
The united nation resolved the decision to divide Palestine and declared the independent state of Israel. There fare the Arab would denied the existence of Israel state on Arab land hence the act break of thewars.
2. Jewish expansion on Arab land.
The influx of Jewish settlers began during the rule of British on Palestine therefore before British withdraw all from Palestine, Jewish invaded Tiberias (April 19, 1948), Haifa (April Jaffa (April 28), The Arab quarters in Jerusalem (April 30), Beisan (May3) Safad (May 10) and Acre(May 14)
3. External force, Arab –Jewish war was influenced by external forced. These forces involved the big nation for example USSR and (Czechoslovakia provided weapons to Arab countries while USA Britain and France provided weaponsto Jewish.
4. Religious Factor.
Most of the Arabs are Muslims while the Jewish are Christians. The Arabs believe in Jihad, the holy war to defend Muslims and Island and the Jewishbelievein crusade war. Therefore conflict was inevitable.
Jews believe that they are superior race chosen by God and have the rights todominate all interior race hence conflict. And on the other hand the Arabs land is aninsult to their race hence they declared to defend thePalestinian Arabs.
IMPACTS OF ARAB-JEWISH WARS
Many people in the Middle East died due to several attacks from both sides, many Jews and
2. The grab of Arab wealth by the Jews.
Jews took an advantage of the war to grab Arab wealth during the war, theseincluded livestock’s and minerals.
3. Displacement of Arab settlement.
Most of the Palestinian Arabs lost their land in the hand of Jews for example, west bankGaza
4. Increase of number of refugees.
There was increasing number of refugees because most of the Palestinian. Arabs left their lands to the neighboring countries. (About 711,000 refugees). For example, in Jordan
5. Disintegration of United Arab front opposition to Israel.
After the war many Arab nations started to disintegrate to oppose Israel. For example, Egypt signed a peace treaty with Israel (Camp David).
6. Destruction of Arab economy.
Buildings and infrastructures were totally destroyed.
CAMP DAVID AND EGYPTIAN ISRAEL PEACE TREAT (1978 -79)
Through the 1970’s Arab –Israel negotiations continued to dominatethe agenda of Middle East International Politics.
1. The United States, seeing the effectsthat Arabs Israel conflict could haveon world economy pressed for solution to the conflict.
2. The camp David refers to the reconcile on the issue of middle east crisis 3. Factor that led to the peace agreement were the frequent wars between
the Jews and the Arabs.
4. During the Camp David many Arabs nations refused to attend the agreements at Camp David, but support of the agreements.
5. The support of Egypt led to the 1978 peace treaty between Israel and Arabs.
AGREEMENTS OF EGYPTIAN –JEWS PEACE TREATY
1. Israel agreed to return Sinai to Egypt, during the war Jewish conquer the land in Egypt as the result Egypt wanted back her land and was affected in 1982 when the land was returned to Egypt.
2. They had to negotiate Palestinian autonomy measures in the Israel occupied west Bank and Gaza strip.
3. They had to reconcile Egyptian Israel diplomatic relations. They agreed to establish diplomatic relationship among them
IMPACT OF THE CAMP DAVID AGREEMENTS
1. If led to the division of Arab state for example Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Egypt become close to Western countries and United States of America (U.S.A).
2. Camp David did not become the basis for comprehensive settlement of Arab Israel conflict.
3. It led to the reduction of conflict among Arabic and Jewish. That means the consequence was to radically alter the strategic balance in Arab –Israel conflict.
4. Increase of confidence to Israel. Started to gain confidence due to the decrease of Arab opposition.
5. Camp David cemented the US- Egyptian relationship and isolated Soviet Union in the Middle East.