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All Subjects


Concept of Information

The meaning of Data


Data can be defined as facts about something that can be used in calculating, reasoning or planning.


Data (Input) is a collection of unprocessed items, which can include text, numbers, images, audio, and video which are later processed into information


Information conveys meaning to users , it is also known as processed data (output)


Data is any collection of numbers, characters or other symbols that has been coded into a format that can be input into a computer and processed.


Data on its own has no meaning or context. It is only after processing by a computer that data takes on a context and becomes information.


Therefore information is an organized data which give meaningful sentence or statement.


Example: when a student is admitted at school he/she fills a form with details such as names, date of birth, address ,phone number and so on, those details are referred as data. When such data are used by the school authority then the school get the information about a particular student.



Relationship of Data and Information


Data and Information are closely interrelated to each other.




  • Both data and Information can be presented in alphabets

  • Both data and information can be Presented in numerals

  • Both data and Information can be presented in symbols




  • data is a row fact which is unprocessed.

  • data is the lower level of knowledge

  • observation and recording are done to obtain data




  • Information is data that has been processed

  • Information is the second level of knowledge

  • Analysis is done to obtain information


The sources of Information


An information source is a person, thing, or place from which information comes, arises, or is obtained. That source might then inform a person about something or provide knowledge about it.


Information sources are divided into separate distinct categories,

  A. Primary

  B. Secondary

  C. Tertiary





Primary source of information allow learners to access original and unedited information. Primary source requires the learner to interact with the sources and extract information.


Examples: Discussion, Debate, Meeting, Survey, Observation etc.





Secondary sources are edited primary sources, second hand versions. They represent someone else's thinking.


Example: Books magazines, news paper, video tape, audiotape, TV, internet, website.etc.





These sources are intermediate between primary and secondary sources .


Example someone may read a news paper and pass the information to others through various means.


Assignment 1: What are the importance of Information


Information dissemination


Information dissemination is the process of spreading or distributing information using various ways from one individual to another. or Information dissemination is the process of making the information known to the general public.

  • SOURCE: This is the origin of the message. the source can be direct or indirect


  • MEDIUM : This is the means or channel of spreading information such as newspaper , signs, magazines radio television telephone internet etc.


  • RECEIVER : These are the intended audience to receive the message or information.




i) Traditional Ways


ii) Modern Ways.


i) Traditional ways of disseminating Information

Uses traditional tools to spread information example songs, drums, poems whistle.


ii) The modern ways of disseminating Information

Uses modern tools to spread information example Internet, TV, Radio stations, magazines, posters, burners, fliers, websites, Social media like WhatsApp, Facebook, tango, immo, Instagram, tweeter etc.




Communication media

Communication media refers to the means of delivering and receiving data or information


Communication media can be classified into 2 categories


Guided media: the messages (data) are guided along a physical path. example of guided media include phone lines, twisted pair cables, coaxial cables and optical fiber


Unguided media: are media that allow the transmission of data without the use of physical means to define the path it takes(wireless). examples, Bluetooth, radio wave, microwave, infrared, Wi-Fi etc.


The communication media equipments

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